Departures and Instrument Departure Procedures (DPs)
The GPS receiver must be set to terminal (±1 NM) CDI sensitivity and the navigation routes contained in the database in order to fly published IFR charted departures and DPs. Terminal RAIM should be provided automatically by the receiver. (Terminal RAIM for departure may not be available unless the WPs are part of the active flight plan rather than proceeding direct to the first destination.) Certain segments of a DP may require some manual intervention by the pilot, especially when radar vectored to a course or required to intercept a specific course to a WP. The database may not contain all of the transitions or departures from all runways and some GPS receivers do not contain DPs in the database. It is necessary that helicopter procedures be flown at 70 knots or less since helicopter departure procedures and missed approaches use a 20:1 obstacle clearance surface (OCS), which is double the fixed-wing OCS. Turning areas are based on this speed also. Missed approach routings in which the first track is via a course rather than direct to the next WP require additional action by the pilot to set the course. Being familiar with all of the required inputs is especially critical during this phase of flight.
Normally, with 30 satellites in operation, the GPS constellation is expected to be available continuously worldwide. Whenever there are fewer than 24 operational satellites, GPS navigational capability may not be available at certain geographic locations. Loss of signals may also occur in valleys surrounded by high terrain, and any time the aircraft’s GPS antenna is “shadowed” by the aircraft’s structure (e.g., when the aircraft is banked).
Certain receivers, transceivers, mobile radios, and portable receivers can cause signal interference. Some VHF transmissions may cause “harmonic interference.” Pilots can isolate the interference by relocating nearby portable receivers, changing frequencies, or turning off suspected causes of the interference while monitoring the receiver’s signal quality data page.
GPS position data can be affected by equipment characteristics and various geometric factors, which typically cause errors of less than 100 feet. Satellite atomic clock inaccuracies, receiver/processors, signals reflected from hard objects (multi-path), ionospheric and tropospheric delays, and satellite data transmission errors may cause small position errors or momentary loss of the GPS signal.
The status of GPS satellites is broadcast as part of the data message transmitted by the GPS satellites. GPS status information is also available by means of the United States Coast Guard navigation information service: (703) 313-5907 or on the internet at www.navcen.uscg.gov. Additionally, satellite status is available through the NOTAM system.
The GPS receiver verifies the integrity (usability) of the signals received from the GPS constellation through RAIM to determine if a satellite is providing corrupted information. At least one satellite, in addition to those required for navigation, must be in view for the receiver to perform the RAIM function; thus, RAIM needs a minimum of five satellites in view or four satellites and a barometric altimeter (baro-aiding) to detect an integrity anomaly. For receivers capable of doing so, RAIM needs six satellites in view (or five satellites with baro-aiding) to isolate the corrupt satellite signal and remove it from the navigation solution.
RAIM messages vary somewhat between receivers; however, there are two most commonly used types. One type indicates that there are not enough satellites available to provide RAIM integrity monitoring and another type indicates that the RAIM integrity monitor has detected a potential error that exceeds the limit for the current phase of flight. Without RAIM capability, the pilot has no assurance of the accuracy of the GPS position.
Selective Availability. Selective availability is a method by which the accuracy of GPS is intentionally degraded. This feature is designed to deny hostile use of precise GPS positioning data. Selective availability was discontinued on May 1, 2000, but many GPS receivers are designed to assume that selective availability is still active. New receivers may take advantage of the discontinuance of selective availability based on the performance values in ICAO Annex 10 and do not need to be designed to operate outside of that performance.
Pilots should practice GPS approaches under VMC until thoroughly proficient with all aspects of their equipment (receiver and installation) prior to attempting flight by IFR in IMC. Some of the tasks which the pilot should practice are:
- Utilizing the RAIM prediction function;
- Inserting a DP into the flight plan, including setting terminal CDI sensitivity, if required, and the conditions under which terminal RAIM is available for departure (some receivers are not DP or STAR capable);
- Programming the destination airport;
- Programming and flying the overlay approaches (especially procedure turns and arcs);
- Changing to another approach after selecting an approach;
- Programming and flying “direct” missed approaches;
- Programming and flying “routed” missed approaches;
- Entering, flying, and exiting holding patterns, particularly on overlay approaches with a second WP in the holding pattern;
- Programming and flying a “route” from a holding pattern;
- Programming and flying an approach with radar vectors to the intermediate segment;
- Indication of the actions required for RAIM failure both before and after the FAWP; and
- Programming a radial and distance from a VOR (often used in departure instructions).
Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS)
Differential global positioning systems (DGPS) are designed to improve the accuracy of GNSS by measuring changes in variables to provide satellite positioning corrections.
Because multiple receivers receiving the same set of satellites produce similar errors, a reference receiver placed at a known location can compute its theoretical position accurately and can compare that value to the measurements provided by the navigation satellite signals. The difference in measurement between the two signals is an error that can be corrected by providing a reference signal correction.
As a result of this differential input accuracy of the satellite system can be increased to meters. The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) are examples of differential global positioning systems.