If an aircraft is to move, fly, and perform, work must act upon it. Work involves force moving the aircraft. The aircraft acquires mechanical energy when it moves. Mechanical energy comes in two forms: (1) Kinetic Energy (KE), the energy of speed; (2) Potential Energy (PE), the stored energy of position.
Aircraft motion (KE) is described by its velocity (airspeed). Aircraft position (PE) is described by its height (altitude). Both KE and PE are directly proportional to the object’s mass. KE is directly proportional to the square of the object’s velocity (airspeed). PE is directly proportional to the object’s height (altitude). The formulas below summarize these energy relationships:
We sometimes use the terms “power” and “thrust” interchangeably when discussing climb performance. This erroneously implies the terms are synonymous. It is important to distinguish between these terms. Thrust is a force or pressure exerted on an object. Thrust is measured in pounds (lb) or newtons (N). Power, however, is a measurement of the rate of performing work or transferring energy (KE and PE). Power is typically measured in horsepower (hp) or kilowatts (kw). We can think of power as the motion (KE and PE) a force (thrust) creates when exerted on an object over a period of time.
Positive climb performance occurs when an aircraft gains PE by increasing altitude. Two basic factors, or a combination of the two factors, contribute to positive climb performance in most aircraft:
- The aircraft climbs (gains PE) using excess power above that required to maintain level flight, or
- The aircraft climbs by converting airspeed (KE) to altitude (PE).
As an example of factor 1 above, an aircraft with an engine capable of producing 200 horsepower (at a given altitude) is using only 130 horsepower to maintain level flight at that altitude. This leaves 70 horsepower available to climb. The pilot holds airspeed constant and increases power to perform the climb.
As an example of factor 2, an aircraft is flying level at 120 knots. The pilot leaves the engine power setting constant but applies other control inputs to perform a climb. The climb, sometimes called a zoom climb, converts the airspeed (KE) to altitude (PE); the airspeed decreases to something less than 120 knots as the altitude increases.
There are two primary reasons to evaluate climb performance. First, aircraft must climb over obstacles to avoid hitting them. Second, climbing to higher altitudes can provide better weather, fuel economy, and other benefits. Maximum Angle of Climb (AOC), obtained at VX, may provide climb performance to ensure an aircraft will clear obstacles. Maximum Rate of Climb (ROC), obtained at VY, provides climb performance to achieve the greatest altitude gain over time. Maximum ROC may not be sufficient to avoid obstacles in some situations, while maximum AOC may be sufficient to avoid the same obstacles. [Figure 11-7]
Angle of Climb (AOC)
AOC is a comparison of altitude gained relative to distance traveled. AOC is the inclination (angle) of the flight path. For maximum AOC performance, a pilot flies the aircraft at VX so as to achieve maximum altitude increase with minimum horizontal travel over the ground. A good use of maximum AOC is when taking off from a short airfield surrounded by high obstacles, such as trees or power lines. The objective is to gain sufficient altitude to clear the obstacle while traveling the least horizontal distance over the surface.
One method to climb (have positive AOC performance) is to have excess thrust available. Essentially, the greater the force that pushes the aircraft upward, the steeper it can climb. Maximum AOC occurs at the airspeed and angle of attack (AOA) combination which allows the maximum excess thrust. The airspeed and AOA combination where excess thrust exists varies amongst aircraft types. As an example, Figure 11-8 provides a comparison between jet and propeller airplanes as to where maximum excess thrust (for maximum AOC) occurs. In a jet, maximum excess thrust normally occurs at the airspeed where the thrust required is at a minimum (approximately L/DMAX). In a propeller airplane, maximum excess thrust normally occurs at an airspeed below L/DMAX and frequently just above stall speed.Rate of Climb (ROC)
ROC is a comparison of altitude gained relative to the time needed to reach that altitude. ROC is simply the vertical component of the aircraft’s flight path velocity vector. For maximum ROC performance, a pilot flies the aircraft at VY so as to achieve a maximum gain in altitude over a given period of time.
Maximum ROC expedites a climb to an assigned altitude. This gains the greatest vertical distance over a period of time. For example, in a maximum AOC profile, a certain aircraft takes 30 seconds to reach 1,000 feet AGL, but covers only 3,000 feet over the ground. By comparison, using its maximum ROC profile, the same aircraft climbs to 1,500 feet in 30 seconds but covers 6,000 feet across the ground. Note that both ROC and AOC maximum climb profiles use the aircraft’s maximum throttle setting. Any differences between max ROC and max AOC lie primarily in the velocity (airspeed) and AOA combination the aircraft manual specifies. [Figure 11-7]
ROC performance depends upon excess power. Since climbing is work and power is the rate of performing work, a pilot can increase the climb rate by using any power not used to maintain level flight. Maximum ROC occurs at an airspeed and AOA combination that produces the maximum excess power. Therefore, maximum ROC for a typical jet airplane occurs at an airspeed greater than L/DMAX and at an AOA less than L/DMAX AOA. In contrast, maximum ROC for a typical propeller airplane occurs at an airspeed and AOA combination closer to L/DMAX. [Figure 11-9]Climb Performance Factors
Since weight, altitude and configuration changes affect excess thrust and power, they also affect climb performance. Climb performance is directly dependent upon the ability to produce either excess thrust or excess power. Earlier in the book it was shown that an increase in weight, an increase in altitude, lowering the landing gear, or lowering the flaps all decrease both excess thrust and excess power for all aircraft. Therefore, maximum AOC and maximum ROC performance decreases under any of these conditions.
Weight has a very pronounced effect on aircraft performance. If weight is added to an aircraft, it must fly at a higher AOA to maintain a given altitude and speed. This increases the induced drag of the wings, as well as the parasite drag of the aircraft. Increased drag means that additional thrust is needed to overcome it, which in turn means that less reserve thrust is available for climbing. Aircraft designers go to great lengths to minimize the weight, since it has such a marked effect on the factors pertaining to performance.
A change in an aircraft’s weight produces a twofold effect on climb performance. First, a change in weight changes the drag and the power required. This alters the reserve power available, which in turn, affects both the climb angle and the climb rate. Secondly, an increase in weight reduces the maximum ROC, but the aircraft must be operated at a higher climb speed to achieve the smaller peak climb rate.
An increase in altitude also increases the power required and decreases the power available. Therefore, the climb performance of an aircraft diminishes with altitude. The speeds for maximum ROC, maximum AOC, and maximum and minimum level flight airspeeds vary with altitude. As altitude is increased, these various speeds finally converge at the absolute ceiling of the aircraft. At the absolute ceiling, there is no excess of power and only one speed allows steady, level flight. Consequently, the absolute ceiling of an aircraft produces zero ROC. The service ceiling is the altitude at which the aircraft is unable to climb at a rate greater than 100 feet per minute (fpm). Usually, these specific performance reference points are provided for the aircraft at a specific design configuration. [Figure 11-10]
The terms “power loading,” “wing loading,” “blade loading,” and “disk loading” are commonly used in reference to performance. Power loading is expressed in pounds per horsepower and is obtained by dividing the total weight of the aircraft by the rated horsepower of the engine. It is a significant factor in an aircraft’s takeoff and climb capabilities. Wing loading is expressed in pounds per square foot and is obtained by dividing the total weight of an airplane in pounds by the wing area (including ailerons) in square feet. It is the airplane’s wing loading that determines the landing speed. Blade loading is expressed in pounds per square foot and is obtained by dividing the total weight of a helicopter by the area of the rotor blades. Blade loading is not to be confused with disk loading, which is the total weight of a helicopter divided by the area of the disk swept by the rotor blades.