Approaches (Part Eighteen)

Missed Approach

Many reasons exist for executing a missed approach. The primary reasons, of course, are that the required flight visibility prescribed in the IAP being used does not exist when natural vision is used under 14 CFR Part 91, § 91.175c, the required enhanced flight visibility is less than that prescribed in the IAP when an EFVS is used under 14 CFR Part 91, § 91.176, or the required visual references for the runway cannot be seen upon arrival at the DA, DH, or MAP. In addition, according to 14 CFR Part 91, the aircraft must continuously be in a position from which a descent to a landing on the intended runway can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal maneuvers, and for operations conducted under Part 121 or 135, unless that descent rate allows touchdown to occur within the TDZ of the runway of intended landing. CAT II and III approaches call for different visibility requirements as prescribed by the FAA Administrator.

 

Prior to initiating an instrument approach procedure, the pilot should assess the actions to be taken in the event of a balked (rejected) landing beyond the missed approach point or below the MDA or DA (H) considering the anticipated weather conditions and available aircraft performance. 14 CFR 91.175(e) authorizes the pilot to fly an appropriate missed approach procedure that ensures obstruction clearance, but it does not necessarily consider separation from other air traffic. The pilot must consider other factors such as the aircraft’s geographical location with respect to the prescribed missed approach point, direction of flight, and/ or the minimum turning altitudes in the prescribed missed approach procedure. The pilot must also consider aircraft performance, visual climb restrictions, charted obstacles, published obstacle departure procedure, takeoff visual climb requirements as expressed by nonstandard takeoff minima, other traffic expected to be in the vicinity, or other factors not specifically expressed by the approach procedures.

A clearance for an instrument approach procedure includes a clearance to fly the published missed approach procedure, unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Once descent below the DA, DH, or MDA is begun, a missed approach must be executed if the required visibility is lost or the runway environment is no longer visible, unless the loss of sight of the runway is a result of normal banking of the aircraft during a circling approach. A MAP is also required upon the execution of a rejected landing for any reason, such as men and equipment or animals on the runway, or if the approach becomes unstabilized and a normal landing cannot be performed. After the MAP in the visual segment of a non-precision approach, there may be hazards when executing a missed approach below the MDA. The published missed approach procedure provides obstacle clearance only when the missed approach is conducted on the missed approach segment from or above the missed approach point, and assumes a climb rate of 200 ft/NM or higher, as published. If the aircraft initiates a missed approach at a point other than the missed approach point, from below MDA or DA (H), or on a circling approach, obstacle clearance is not provided by following the published missed approach procedure, nor is separation assured from other air traffic in the vicinity.

The missed approach climb is normally executed at the MAP. If such a climb is initiated at a higher altitude prior to the MAP, pilots must be aware of any published climb-altitude limitations, which must be accounted for when commencing an early climb. Figure 4-23 gives an example of an altitude restriction that would prevent a climb between the FAF and MAP. In this situation, the Orlando Executive ILS or LOC RWY 7 approach altitude is restricted at the BUVAY 3 DME fix to prevent aircraft from penetrating the overlying protected airspace for approach routes into Orlando International Airport. If a missed approach is initiated before reaching BUVAY, a pilot may be required to continue descent to 1,200 feet before proceeding to the MAP and executing the missed approach climb instructions. In addition to the missed approach notes on the chart, the Pilot Briefing Information icons in the profile view indicate the initial vertical and lateral missed approach guidance.

Figure 4-23. Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, Florida, ILS RWY 7.

Figure 4-23. Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando, Florida, ILS RWY 7.

 

The missed approach course begins at the MAP and continues until the aircraft has reached the designated fix and a holding pattern has been entered. [Figure 4-24] In these circumstances, ATC normally issues further instructions before the aircraft reaches the final fix of the missed approach course. It is also common for the designated fix to be an IAF so that another approach attempt can be made without having to fly from the holding fix to an IAF.

Figure 4-24 Missed approach procedures for Dallas-Fort Worth International (DFW)4

Figure 4-24 Missed approach procedures for Dallas-Fort Worth International (DFW)4

In the event a balked (rejected) landing occurs at a position other than the published missed approach point, the pilot should contact ATC as soon as possible to obtain an amended clearance. If unable to contact ATC for any reason, the pilot should attempt to re−intercept a published segment of the missed approach and comply with route and altitude instructions. If unable to contact ATC, and in the pilot’s judgment it is no longer appropriate to fly the published missed approach procedure, then consider either maintaining visual conditions (if possible) and reattempt a landing, or a circle−climb over the airport. Should a missed approach become necessary when operating to an airport that is not served by an operating control tower, continuous contact with an air traffic facility may not be possible. In this case, the pilot should execute the appropriate go−around/missed approach procedure without delay and contact ATC when able to do so.

 

As shown in Figure 4-25 , there are many different ways that the MAP can be depicted, depending on the type of approach. On all approach charts, it is depicted in the profile and plan views by the end of the solid course line and the beginning of the dotted missed approach course line for the top-line/ lowest published minima. For a precision approach, the MAP is the point at which the aircraft reaches the DA or DH while on the glideslope/ glidepath. MAPs on non-precision approaches can be determined in many different ways. If the primary NAVAID is on the airport, and either a VOR or NDB approach is being executed, the MAP is normally the point at which the aircraft passes the NAVAID.

Figure 4-25. Missed approach point depiction and steeper than standard climb gradient requirements.

Figure 4-25. Missed approach point depiction and steeper than standard climb gradient requirements.

On some non-precision approaches, the MAP is given as a fixed distance with an associated time from the FAF to the MAP based on the groundspeed of the aircraft. A table on the lower right or left hand side of the approach chart shows the distance in NM from the FAF to the MAP and the time it takes at specific groundspeeds, given in 30 knot increments. Pilots must determine the approximate groundspeed and time based on the approach speed and true airspeed of their aircraft and the current winds along the final approach course. A clock or stopwatch should be started at the FAF of an approach requiring this method. Many non-precision approaches designate a specific fix as the MAP. These can be identified by a course (LOC or VOR) and DME, a cross radial from a VOR, or an RNAV (GPS) waypoint.

 

Obstacles or terrain in the missed approach segment may require a steeper climb gradient than the standard 200 ft/NM. If a steeper climb gradient is required, a note is published on the approach chart plan view with the penetration description and examples of the required FPM rate of climb for a given groundspeed (future charting uses climb gradient). An alternative is normally charted that allows using the standard climb gradient. [Figure 4-25] In this example, if the missed approach climb requirements cannot be met for the Burbank ILS RWY 8 chart, the alternative is to use the LOC RWY 8 that is charted separately. The LOC RWY 8, S-8 procedure has a MDA that is 400 feet higher than the ILS RWY 8, S-LOC 8 MDA and meets the standard climb gradient requirement over the terrain. For some approaches a new charting standard is requiring two sets of minimums to be published when a climb gradient greater than 200 ft/NM is required. The first set of minimums is the lower of the two, requiring a climb gradient greater than 200 ft/NM. The second set of minimums is higher, but doesn’t require a climb gradient. Shown in Figure 4-26, Barstow-Daggett (KDAG) RNAV (GPS) RWY 26 is an example where there are two LPV lines of minimums.

Figure 4-26. Two sets of minimums required when a climb gradient greater than 200 ft/NM is required.

Figure 4-26. Two sets of minimums required when a climb gradient greater than 200 ft/NM is required.