Approaches (Part Twenty-Eight)

Radar Approaches

The two types of radar approaches available to pilots when operating in the NAS are precision approach radar (PAR) and airport surveillance radar (ASR). Radar approaches may be given to any aircraft at the pilot’s request. ATC may also offer radar approach options to aircraft in distress regardless of the weather conditions or as necessary to expedite traffic. Despite the control exercised by ATC in a radar approach environment, it remains the pilot’s responsibility to ensure the approach and landing minimums listed for the approach are appropriate for the existing weather conditions considering personal approach criteria certification and company OpSpecs.

 

Perhaps the greatest benefit of either type of radar approach is the ability to use radar to execute a no gyro approach. Assuming standard rate turns, ATC can indicate when to begin and end turns. If available, pilots should make use of this approach when the heading indicator has failed and partial panel instrument flying is required.

Information about radar approaches is published in tabular form in the front of the TPP booklet. PAR, ASR, and circling approach information including runway, DA, DH, or MDA, height above airport (HAA), HAT, ceiling, and visibility criteria are outlined and listed by specific airport.

Regardless of the type of radar approach in use, ATC monitors aircraft position and issues specific heading and altitude information throughout the entire approach. Particularly, lost communications procedures should be briefed prior to execution to ensure pilots have a comprehensive understanding of ATC expectations if radio communication were lost. ATC also provides additional information concerning weather and missed approach instructions when beginning a radar approach. [Figure 4-56]

Figure 4-56. Asheville Regional KAVL, Asheville, North Carolina, radar instrument approach minimums.

Figure 4-56. Asheville Regional KAVL, Asheville, North Carolina, radar instrument approach minimums.

Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

PAR provides both vertical and lateral guidance, as well as range, much like an ILS, making it the most precise radar approach available. The radar approach, however, is not able to provide visual approach indications in the flight deck. This requires the flight crew to listen and comply with controller instructions. PAR approaches are rare, with most of the approaches used in a military setting; any opportunity to practice this type of approach is beneficial to any flight crew.

The final approach course of a PAR approach is normally aligned with the runway centerline, and the associated glideslope is typically no less than 2.5° and no more than 3°. Obstacle clearance for the final approach area is based on the particular established glideslope angle and the exact formula is outlined in FAA Order 8260.3. [Figure 4-57]

Figure 4-57. PAR final approach area criteria.

Figure 4-57. PAR final approach area criteria. [click image to enlarge]

Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR)

ASR approaches are typically only approved when necessitated for an ATC operational requirement or in an unusual or emergency situation. This type of radar only provides heading and range information, although the controller can advise the pilot of the altitude where the aircraft should be based on the distance from the runway. An ASR approach procedure can be established at any radar facility that has an antenna within 20 NM of the airport and meets the equipment requirements outlined in FAA Order 8200.1, U.S. Standard Flight Inspection Manual. ASR approaches are not authorized for use when Center Radar ARTS processing (CENRAP) procedures are in use due to diminished radar capability.

The final approach course for an ASR approach is aligned with the runway centerline for straight-in approaches and aligned with the center of the airport for circling approaches. Within the final approach area, the pilot is also guaranteed a minimum of 250 feet obstacle clearance. ASR descent gradients are designed to be relatively flat, with an optimal gradient of 150 feet per mile and never exceeding 300 feet per mile.

 

Localizer Approaches

As an approach system, the localizer is an extremely flexible approach aid that, due to its inherent design, provides many applications for a variety of needs in instrument flying. An ILS glideslope installation may be impossible due to surrounding terrain. The localizer is able to provide four separate types of non-precision approaches from one approach system:

  • Localizer approach
  • Localizer/DME approach
  • Localizer back course approach
  • Localizer-type directional aid (LDA)

Localizer and Localizer DME

The localizer approach system can provide both precision and non-precision approach capabilities to a pilot. As a part of the ILS system, the localizer provides horizontal guidance for a precision approach. Typically, when the localizer is discussed, it is thought of as a non-precision approach due to the fact that either it is the only approach system installed, or the glideslope is out of service on the ILS. In either case, the localizer provides a non-precision approach using a localizer transmitter installed at a specific airport. [Figure 4-58]

Figure 4-58. Vicksburg Tallulah Regional KTVR, Tallulah Vicksburg, Louisiana, LOC RWY 36.

Figure 4-58. Vicksburg Tallulah Regional KTVR, Tallulah Vicksburg, Louisiana, LOC RWY 36.

TERPS provides the same alignment criteria for a localizer approach as it does for the ILS, since it is essentially the same approach without vertical guidance stemming from the glideslope. A localizer is always aligned within 3° of the runway, and it is afforded a minimum of 250 feet obstacle clearance in the final approach area. In the case of a localizer DME (LOC DME) approach, the localizer installation has a collocated DME installation that provides distance information required for the approach. [Figure 4-59]

Figure 4-59. Vicksburg Tallulah Regional KTVR, Tallulah Vicksburg, Louisiana, LOC RWY 36.

Figure 4-59. Vicksburg Tallulah Regional KTVR, Tallulah Vicksburg, Louisiana, LOC RWY 36.

Localizer Back Course

In cases where an ILS is installed, a back course may be available in conjunction with the localizer. Like the localizer, the back course does not offer a glideslope, but remember that the back course can project a false glideslope signal and the glideslope should be ignored. Reverse sensing occurs on the back course using standard VOR equipment.

 

With a horizontal situation indicator (HSI) system, reverse sensing is eliminated if it is set appropriately to the front course. [Figure 4-60]

Figure 4-60. Dayton Beach International DAB, Dayton Beach, Florida, LOC BC RWY 25R.

Figure 4-60. Dayton Beach International DAB, Dayton Beach, Florida, LOC BC RWY 25R.

Localizer-Type Directional Aid (LDA)

The LDA is of comparable use and accuracy to a localizer but is not part of a complete ILS. The LDA course usually provides a more precise approach course than the similar simplified directional facility (SDF) installation, which may have a course width of 6° or 12°.

The LDA is not aligned with the runway. Straight-in minimums may be published where alignment does not exceed 30° between the course and runway. Circling minimums only are published where this alignment exceeds 30°.

A very limited number of LDA approaches also incorporate a glideslope. These are annotated in the plan view of the instrument approach chart with a note, “LDA/Glideslope.” These procedures fall under a newly defined category of approaches called Approach (Procedure) with Vertical Guidance (aviation) APVs. LDA minima for with and without glideslope is provided and annotated on the minima lines of the approach chart as S−LDA/GS and S−LDA. Because the final approach course is not aligned with the runway centerline, additional maneuvering is required compared to an ILS approach. [Figure 4-61]

Figure 4-61. Hartford Brainard KHFD, Hartford, Connecticut, LDA RWY 2.

Figure 4-61. Hartford Brainard KHFD, Hartford, Connecticut, LDA RWY 2.

 

Simplified Directional Facility (SDF)

The SDF provides a final approach course similar to that of the ILS localizer. It does not provide glideslope information. A clear understanding of the ILS localizer and the additional factors listed below completely describe the operational characteristics and use of the SDF. [Figure 4-62]

Figure 4-62. Lebanon Floyd W Jones, Lebanon, Missouri, SDF RWY 36.

Figure 4-62. Lebanon Floyd W Jones, Lebanon, Missouri, SDF RWY 36.

The approach techniques and procedures used in an SDF instrument approach are essentially the same as those employed in executing a standard localizer approach except the SDF course may not be aligned with the runway and the course may be wider, resulting in less precision. Like the LOC type approaches, the SDF is an alternative approach that may be installed at an airport for a variety of reasons, including terrain. The final approach is provided a minimum of 250 feet obstacle clearance for straight-in approaches while in the final approach area, which is an area defined for a 6° course: 1,000 feet at or abeam the runway threshold expanding to 19,228 feet (10 NM) from the threshold. The same final approach area for a 12° course is larger. This type of approach is also designed with a maximum descent gradient of 400 feet per NM, unless circling only minimums are authorized.