Ground Reference Maneuvers

At the completion of ground reference maneuvers, the pilot should not only be able to command the airplane to specific pitch, roll, and yaw attitudes but, while correcting for the effects of wind drift, also control the airplane’s orientation in relation to ground-based references. It should be reinforced that safety is paramount in all aspects of flying. Ground reference maneuvers require planning and high levels of vigilance to ensure that the practice and performance of these maneuvers are executed where the safety to groups of people, livestock, communities, and the pilot is not compromised. To master ground reference maneuvers, a pilot must develop coordination, timing, and division of attention to accurately maneuver the airplane in reference to flight attitudes and specific ground references. With these enhanced skills, the pilot significantly strengthens their competency in everyday flight maneuvers, such as straight-and-level, turns, climbs, and descents.