Celestial navigation in polar regions is of primary importance because it constitutes a primary method of determining position other than by DR, and it provides a reliable means of establishing direction over much of the polar regions. The magnetic compass and directional gyro (DG) are useful in polar regions, but they require an independent check that can be provided by a celestial body or other automatic system, such as inertial navigation system (INS) or global positioning system (GPS).
At high latitudes, the sun’s daily motion is nearly parallel to the horizon. The motion of the aircraft in these regions can easily have greater effect upon altitude and Zn of the sun than the motion of the sun itself.
At latitude 64°, an aircraft flying west at 400 knots keeps pace with the sun, which appears to remain stationary in the sky. At higher latitudes, the altitude of a celestial body might be increasing at any time of day, if the aircraft is flying toward it and a body might rise or set, at any azimuth, depending upon the direction of motion of the aircraft relative to the body.
Bodies Available for Observation
During the continuous daylight of the polar summer, only the sun is regularly available for observation. The moon is above the horizon about half the time, but generally it is both visible and at a favorable position with respect to the sun for only a few days each month.
During the long polar twilight, no celestial bodies may be available for observation. As in lower latitudes, the first celestial bodies to appear after sunset and the last to remain visible before sunrise are those brighter planets, which are above the horizon.
The sun, moon, and planets are never high in polar skies, thus making low altitude observations routine. Particularly with the sun, observations are made when any part of the celestial body is visible. If it is partly below the horizon, the upper limb is observed and a correction of –16′ for semidiameter (SD) is used in the SD block of the precomputation form. During the polar night, stars are available. Polaris is not generally used, because it is too near the zenith in the arctic and not visible in the Antarctic. A number of good stars are in favorable positions for observation. Because of large refractions near the horizon avoid low altitudes (below about 20°) when higher bodies are visible.
Sight reduction in polar regions presents some slightly different problems from those at lower latitudes. Remember, for latitudes greater than 69° N or 69° S, Pub. No. 249 tables have tabulated Hc and azimuths for only even degrees of LHA. This concerns you in two ways. First, it is necessary to adjust assumed longitude to achieve a whole, even LHA for extractions. This precludes interpolating. Second, the difference between successive, tabulated Hc is for 2° of LHA, or 8 minutes of time, so this difference must be divided in half when computing motion of the body for 4 minutes of time.
For ease of plotting, all azimuths can be converted to grid. To convert, use the longitude of the assumed position to determine convergence, because the Zn is for the assumed position, not the DR position. On polar charts, convergence is equal to longitude.
In computing motion of the observer, it is imperative that you use the difference between grid azimuth and grid track, or Zn and true track, since this computation is based on relative bearing (RB). Zn minus grid course does not give RB.
Since low altitudes and low temperatures are normal in polar regions, refer to the refraction correction table and use the temperature correction factor for all observations.
In polar regions, Coriolis corrections reach maximum values and should be carefully computed.
Poles as Assumed Positions
Within approximately 2° of the pole, it is possible to use the pole as the assumed position. With this method, no tabulated celestial computation is necessary and the position may be determined by use of the Air Almanac alone.
At either of the poles of the earth, the zenith and the elevated poles are coincident or the plane of the horizon is coincident with the plane of the equator. Vertical circles coincide with the meridians and parallels of latitude coincide with Dec circles. Therefore, the altitude of the body is equal to its Dec and the azimuth is equal to its hour angle.
To plot any LOP, an intercept and the azimuth of the body are needed. In this solution, the elevated pole is the assumed position. The azimuth is plotted as the GHA of the body or the longitude of the subpoint. The intercept is found by comparing the Dec of the body, as taken from the Air Almanac, with the observed altitude of the body. To summarize, the pole is the assumed position, the Dec is the Hc, and the GHA equals the azimuth.
For ease of plotting, convert the GHA of the body to grid azimuth by adding or subtracting 180° when using the North Pole as the assumed position. When at the South Pole, 360° – GHA of the body equals grid azimuth. The result allows the use of the grid lines for plotting the LOPs. When using grid azimuth for plotting, apply Coriolis to the assumed position (in this case, the pole). Precession or nutation corrections are not necessary since current SHA and Dec are used. Motion of the observer tables may also be used in precomputation, since grid azimuth relative to grid course may be determined. Motion of the body is zero at the poles.
Note the exact GMT of the celestial observation. From the Air Almanac, extract the proper Dec and GHA. Plot the azimuth. Compare Ho and Hc to obtain the intercept. When the observed altitude (Ho) is greater than the Dec (Hc), it is necessary to go from the pole toward the celestial body along the azimuth. If the observed altitude is less than the Dec, as is the case with the sun in Figure 12-15, it is necessary to go from the pole away from the body along the azimuth. Draw the LOPs perpendicular to the azimuth line in the usual manner. Do not be concerned about large intercepts; they have no bearing on the accuracy of this type of fix. Observations on well-separated bearings give a fix that is as good close to the pole as it is anywhere else.