Departure Procedures (Part Nine)

Transition Routes

Charted transition routes allow pilots to transition from the end of the basic SID to a location in the en route structure. Typically, transition routes fan out in various directions from the end of the basic SID to allow pilots to choose the transition route that takes them in the direction of intended departure. A transition route includes a course, a minimum altitude, and distances between fixes on the route. When filing a SID for a specific transition route, include the transition in the flight plan, using the correct departure and transition code. ATC also assigns transition routes as a means of putting the flight on course to the destination. In any case, the pilot must receive an ATC clearance for the departure and the associated transition, and the clearance from ATC will include both the departure name and transition (e.g., Joe Pool Nine Departure, College Station Transition). [Figure 1-23]

Figure 1-23. Transition routes as depicted on SID.

Figure 1-23. Transition routes as depicted on SID. [click image to enlarge]

 

The SID is designed to allow the pilot to provide his or her own navigation with minimal radio communication. This type of procedure usually contains an initial set of departure instructions followed by one or more transition routes. A SID may include an initial segment requiring radar vectors to help the flight join the procedure, but the majority of the navigation remains the pilot’s responsibility. [Figure 1-24]

Figure 1-24. Example of a common SID at Denver, Colorado.

Figure 1-24. Example of a common SID at Denver, Colorado. [click image to enlarge]

A radar SID usually requires ATC to provide radar vectors from just after takeoff (ROC is based on a climb to 400 feet above the DER elevation before making the initial turn) until reaching the assigned route or a fix depicted on the SID chart. Radar SIDs do not include departure routes or transition routes because independent pilot navigation is not involved. The procedure sets forth an initial set of departure instructions that typically include an initial heading and altitude. ATC must have radar contact with the aircraft to be able to provide vectors. ATC expects you to immediately comply with radar vectors, and they expect you to notify them if you are unable to fulfill their request. ATC also expects you to make contact immediately if an instruction causes you to compromise safety due to obstructions or traffic.

 

It is prudent to review radar SID charts prior to use because this type of procedure often includes nonstandard lost communication procedures. If you were to lose radio contact while being vectored by ATC, you would be expected to comply with the lost communication procedure as outlined on the chart, not necessarily those procedures outlined in the AIM. [Figure 1-25]

Figure 1-25. Example of a radar SID at Denver, Colorado.

Figure 1-25. Example of a radar SID at Denver, Colorado. [click image to enlarge]

SID Flight Planning Considerations

Take into consideration the departure paths included in the SIDs, and determine if you can use a standardized departure procedure. You have the opportunity to choose the SID that best suits your flight plan. During the flight planning phase, you can investigate each departure, and determine which procedure allows you to depart the airport in the direction of your intended flight. Also consider how a climb gradient to a specific altitude affects the climb time and fuel burn portions of the flight plan. Notes giving procedural requirements are listed on the graphic portion of a departure procedure, and they are mandatory in nature. [Figure 1-26] Mandatory procedural notes may include:

  • Aircraft equipment requirements (DME, ADF, etc.)
  • ATC equipment in operation (radar)
  • Minimum climb requirements
  • Restrictions for specific types of aircraft (turbojet only)
  • Limited use to certain destinations

Figure 1-26. Departure procedure notes and cautionary statements.

Figure 1-26. Departure procedure notes and cautionary statements. [click image to enlarge]

Cautionary statements may also be included on the procedure to notify you of specific activity, but these are strictly advisory. [Figure 1-26] If you are unable to comply with a specific requirement, you must not file the procedure as part of your flight plan. If ATC assigns you a SID, you may need to quickly recalculate your all-engines-operating performance numbers. If you cannot comply with the climb gradient in the SID, you should not accept a clearance for that SID and furthermore, you must not accept the procedure if ATC assigns it.

 

A clearance for a SID which contains published altitude restrictions may be issued using the phraseology “climb via.” Climb via is an abbreviated clearance that requires compliance with the procedure lateral path, associated speed and altitude restrictions along the cleared route or procedure. Expanded procedures for “Climb via” can be found in the AIM.

ATC can assign SIDs or radar vectors as necessary for traffic management and convenience. To fly a SID, you must receive approval to do so in a clearance. In order to accept a clearance that includes a SID, you must have the charted SID procedure in your possession at the time of departure. It is your responsibility as pilot in command to accept or reject the issuance of a SID by ATC. You must accept or reject the clearance based on:

  • The ability to comply with the required performance.
  • The ability to navigate to the degree of accuracy required for the procedure.
  • Possession of the charted SID procedure.
  • Personal understanding of the SID in its entirety.

When you accept a clearance to depart using a SID or radar vectors, ATC is responsible for traffic separation. When departing with a SID, ATC expects you to fly the procedure as charted because the procedure design considers obstacle clearance. It is also expected that you will remain vigilant in scanning for traffic when departing in visual conditions. Furthermore, it is your responsibility to notify ATC if your clearance would endanger your safety or the safety of others. DPs are also categorized by equipment requirements as follows:

  • Non-RNAV DP—established for aircraft equipped with conventional avionics using ground-based NAVAIDs. These DPs may also be designed using dead reckoning navigation. Some flight management systems (FMS) are certified to fly a non-RNAV DP if the FMS unit accepts inputs from conventional avionics sources, such as DME, VOR, and localizer (LOC). These inputs include radio tuning and may be applied to a navigation solution one at a time or in combination. Some FMS provide for the detection and isolation of faulty navigation information.
  • RNAV DP—established for aircraft equipped with RNAV avionics (e.g., GPS, VOR/DME, DME/DME). Automated vertical navigation is not required, and all RNAV procedures not requiring GPS must be annotated with the note: “RADAR REQUIRED.” Prior to using TSO-C129 GPS equipment for RNAV departures, approach receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) availability should be checked for that location.
  • Radar DP—radar may be used for navigation guidance for SID design. Radar SIDs are established when ATC has a need to vector aircraft on departure to a particular ATS Route, NAVAID, or fix. A fix may be a ground-based NAVAID, a waypoint, or defined by reference to one or more radio NAVAIDs. Not all fixes are waypoints since a fix could be a VOR or VOR/ DME, but all waypoints are fixes. Radar vectors may also be used to join conventional or RNAV navigation SIDs. SIDs requiring radar vectors must be annotated “RADAR REQUIRED.”