14 CFR Part 95 prescribes altitudes governing the operation of aircraft under IFR on Federal airways, jet routes, RNAV low or high altitude routes, and other direct routes for which a MEA is designated. In addition, it designates mountainous areas and COPs. Off-airway routes are established in the same manner and in accordance with the same criteria as airways and jet routes. If a pilot flies for a scheduled air carrier or operator for compensation or hire, any requests for the establishment of off-airway routes are initiated by the company through the principal operations inspector (POI) who works directly with the company and coordinates FAA approval. Air carrier authorized routes should be contained in the company’s Operations Specifications (OpSpecs) under the auspices of the air carrier operating certificate. [Figure 2-46]
Off-airway routes predicated on public navigation facilities and wholly contained within controlled airspace are published as direct Part 95 routes. Off-airway routes predicated on privately owned navigation facilities or not contained wholly within controlled airspace are published as off-airway non-Part 95 routes. In evaluating the adequacy of off-airway routes, the following items are considered: the type of aircraft and navigation systems used; proximity to military bases, training areas, low level military routes; and the adequacy of communications along the route.
Commercial operators planning to fly off-airway routes should have specific instructions in the company’s OpSpecs that address en route limitations and provisions regarding en route authorizations to use the GPS or other RNAV systems in the NAS. The company’s manuals and checklists should include practices and procedures for long-range navigation and training on the use of long range navigation equipment. Minimum equipment lists (MELs) and maintenance programs must address the long range navigation equipment. Examples of other selected areas requiring specialized en route authorization include the following:
- Class I navigation in the United States Class A airspace using area of long range navigation system.
- Class II navigation using multiple long range navigation systems.
- Operations in central East Pacific airspace.
- North Pacific operations.
- Operations within North Atlantic (NAT) minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) airspace.
- Operations in areas of magnetic unreliability.
- North Atlantic operation (NAT/OPS) with two engine aircraft under 14 CFR Part 121.
- Extended range operations (ER-OPS) with two engine aircraft under 14 CFR Part 121.
- Special fuel reserves in international operations.
- Planned in-flight re-dispatch or re-release en route.
- Extended over water operations using a single longrange communication system.
- Operations in reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) airspace.
Off-Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude
An off-route obstruction clearance altitude (OROCA) is an off-route altitude that provides obstruction clearance with a 1,000-foot buffer in non-mountainous terrain areas and a 2,000-foot buffer in designated mountainous areas within the United States. This altitude may not provide signal coverage from ground-based NAVAIDs, ATC radar, or communications coverage. OROCAs are intended primarily as a pilot tool for emergencies and SA. OROCAs depicted on en route charts do not provide the pilot with an acceptable altitude for terrain and obstruction clearance for the purposes of off-route, random RNAV direct flights in either controlled or uncontrolled airspace. OROCAs are not subject to the same scrutiny as MEAs, minimum vectoring altitude (MVAs), MOCAs, and other minimum IFR altitudes. Since they do not undergo the same obstruction evaluation, airport airspace analysis procedures, or flight inspection, they cannot provide the same level of confidence as the other minimum IFR altitudes.
When departing an airport VFR intending to or needing to obtain an IFR clearance en route, you must be aware of the position of your aircraft relative to terrain and obstructions. When accepting a clearance below the MEA, MIA, MVA, or the OROCA, you are responsible for your own terrain/ obstruction clearance until reaching the MEA, MIA, or MVA. If unable to visually maintain terrain/obstruction clearance, pilots should advise ATC and state intentions of the flight. [Figure 2-47]
For all random RNAV flights, there needs to be at least one waypoint in each ARTCC area through which you intend to fly. One of the biggest problems in creating an RNAV direct route is determining if the route goes through special use airspace. For most direct routes, the chances of going through prohibited, restricted, or special use airspace are good. In the United States, all direct routes should be planned to avoid prohibited or restricted airspace by at least 3 NM. If a bend in a direct route is required to avoid special use airspace, the turning point needs to be part of the flight plan. Two of the most prominent long range navigation systems today include FMS with integrated GPS and stand-alone GPS. The following example is a simplified overview showing how the RNAV systems might be used to fly a random RNAV route.
Shown in Figure 2-48, the aircraft is northeast of Tuba City VORTAC at FL 200 using RNAV (showing both GPS and FMS), RNAV direct on a southwesterly heading to Lindbergh Regional Airport in Winslow. As the pilot is monitoring his or her position and cross-checking the avionics against the high altitude en route chart, he or she receives a company message instructing to divert to Las Vegas, requiring a change in the flight plan as highlighted on the depicted chart excerpt.
During the flight deck review of the high and low altitude en route charts, the pilot determines that the best course of action is to fly direct to the MIRAJ waypoint, 28 DME northeast of the Las Vegas VORTAC on the 045° radial. This places the aircraft 193 NM out on a 259° magnetic course inbound, and may help to avoid diverting north, allowing to bypass the more distant originating and intermediate fixes feeding into Las Vegas. The pilot requests an RNAV random route clearance direct MIRAJ to expedite the flight. Denver Center comes back with the following amended flight plan and initial clearance into Las Vegas:
“Marathon five sixty four, turn right heading two six zero, descend and maintain one six thousand, cleared present position direct MIRAJ.”
The latitude and longitude coordinates of the aircraft’s present position on the high altitude chart is N36 19.10 and W110 40.24 as the course is changed. Notice the GPS moving map (upper left), the FMS control display unit (below the GPS), and FMS map mode navigation displays (to the right of the GPS) as the flight is rerouted to Las Vegas. For SA, the pilot makes note that the altitude is well above any of the OROCAs on the direct route as the flight arrives in the Las Vegas area using the low altitude chart.