Operations in Other Countries
When flight crews transition from the U.S. NAS to another country’s airspace, they should be aware of differences not only in procedures but also airspace. For example, when flying into Canada as depicted in Figure 2-67, notice the change from transition level (QNE) to transition altitude (QNH) when flying north-bound into the Moncton flight information region (FIR).
Operations in international airspace demand that pilots are aware of, and understand the use of, the three types of altimeter settings. Most overseas airports give altimeter settings in hectopascals (hPa) (millibars). Therefore, it is imperative that pilots or on-board equipment are able to accurately convert inches of mercury to hPa, or hPa to inches of mercury.
Altitude Above Ground (QFE)
A local altimeter setting equivalent to the barometric pressure measured at an airport altimeter datum, usually signifying the approach end of the runway is in use. At the airport altimeter datum, an altimeter set to QFE indicates zero altitude. If required to use QFE altimetry, altimeters are set to QFE while operating at or below the transition altitude and below the transition level. On the airport, the altimeter will read “0” feet.
Barometric Pressure for Standard Altimeter Setting (QNE)
Use the altimeter setting (en route) at or above the transition altitude (FL 180 in the United States). The altimeter setting is always 29.92 inches of mercury/1013.2 hPa for a QNE altitude. Transition levels differ from country to country and pilots should be particularly alert when making a climb or descent in a foreign area.
Barometric Pressure for Local Altimeter Setting (QNH)
A local altimeter setting equivalent to the barometric pressure measured at an airport altimeter datum and corrected to sea level pressure. At the airport altimeter datum, an altimeter set to QNH indicates airport elevation above mean sea level (MSL). Altimeters are set to QNH while operating at and below the transition altitude and below the transition level.
For flights in the vicinity of airports, express the vertical position of aircraft in terms of QNH or QFE at or below the transition altitude and in terms of QNE at or above the transition level. While passing through the transition layer, express vertical position in terms of FLs when ascending and in terms of altitudes when descending.
When an aircraft that receives a clearance as number one to land completes its approach using QFE, express the vertical position of the aircraft in terms of height above the airport elevation during that portion of its flight for which you may use QFE.
It is important to remember that most pressure altimeters are subject to mechanical, elastic, temperature, and installation errors. In addition, extremely cold temperature differences may also require altimeter correction factors as appropriate.
En Route Reporting Procedures
In addition to acknowledging a handoff to another Center en route controller, there are reports that should be made without a specific request from ATC. Certain reports should be made at all times regardless of whether a flight is in radar contact with ATC, while others are necessary only if radar contact has been lost or terminated. [Figure 2-68]
Non-Radar Position Reports
If radar contact has been lost or radar service terminated, the CFRs require pilots to provide ATC with position reports over designated VORs and intersections along their route of flight. These compulsory reporting points are depicted on IFR en route charts by solid triangles. Position reports over fixes indicated by open triangles are noncompulsory reporting points and are only necessary when requested by ATC. If on a direct course that is not on an established airway, report over the fixes used in the flight plan that define the route, since they automatically become compulsory reporting points. Compulsory reporting points also apply when conducting an IFR flight in accordance with a VFR-on-top clearance.
Whether a route is on an airway or direct, position reports are mandatory in a non-radar environment, and they must include specific information. A typical position report includes information pertaining to aircraft position, expected route, and ETA. When a position report is to be made passing a VOR radio facility, the time reported should be the time at which the first complete reversal of the TO/ FROM indicator is accomplished. When a position report is made passing a facility by means of an airborne ADF, the time reported should be the time at which the indicator makes a complete reversal. When an aural or a light panel indication is used to determine the time passing a reporting point, such as a fan marker, Z marker, cone of silence or intersection of range courses, the time should be noted when the signal is first received and again when it ceases. The mean of these two times should then be taken as the actual time over the fix. If a position is given with respect to distance and direction from a reporting point, the distance and direction should be computed as accurately as possible. Except for terminal area transition purposes, position reports or navigation with reference to aids not established for use in the structure in which flight is being conducted are not normally required by ATC.
Flights in a Radar Environment
When informed by ATC that their aircraft are in “Radar Contact,” pilots should discontinue position reports over designated reporting points. They should resume normal position reporting when ATC advises “radar contact lost” or “radar service terminated.” ATC informs pilots that they are in radar contact:
- When their aircraft is initially identified in the ATC system; and
- When radar identification is reestablished after radar service has been terminated or radar contact lost.
Subsequent to being advised that the controller has established radar contact, this fact is not repeated to the pilot when handed off to another controller. At times, the aircraft identity is confirmed by the receiving controller; however, this should not be construed to mean that radar contact has been lost. The identity of transponder equipped aircraft is confirmed by asking the pilot to “ident,” “squawk standby,” or to change codes. Aircraft without transponders are advised of their position to confirm identity. In this case, the pilot is expected to advise the controller if in disagreement with the position given. Any pilot who cannot confirm the accuracy of the position given because of not being tuned to the NAVAID referenced by the controller should ask for another radar position relative to the tuned in NAVAID.