Ground-Based Navigation (Part Two)

Course Deviation Indicator (CDI)

The CDI is found in most training aircraft. It consists of an omnibearing selector (OBS) sometimes referred to as the course selector, a CDI needle (left-right needle), and a TO/FROM indicator.

The course selector is an azimuth dial that can be rotated to select a desired radial or to determine the radial over which the aircraft is flying. In addition, the magnetic course “TO” or “FROM” the station can be determined.


When the course selector is rotated, it moves the CDI or needle to indicate the position of the radial relative to the aircraft. If the course selector is rotated until the deviation needle is centered, the radial (magnetic course “FROM” the station) or its reciprocal (magnetic course “TO” the station) can be determined. The course deviation needle also moves to the right or left if the aircraft is flown or drifting away from the radial which is set in the course selector.

By centering the needle, the course selector indicates either the course “FROM” the station or the course “TO” the station. If the flag displays a “TO,” the course shown on the course selector must be flown to the station. [Figure 16-29] If “FROM” is displayed and the course shown is followed, the aircraft is flown away from the station.

Figure 16-29. VOR indicator.

Figure 16-29. VOR indicator.

Horizontal Situation Indicator

The HSI is a direction indicator that uses the output from a flux valve to drive the compass card. The HSI [Figure 16-30] combines the magnetic compass with navigation signals and a glideslope. The HSI gives the pilot an indication of the location of the aircraft in relation to the chosen course or radial.

Figure 16-30. Horizontal situation indicator.

Figure 16-30. Horizontal situation indicator.

In Figure 16-30, the aircraft magnetic heading displayed on the compass card under the lubber line is 184°. The course select pointer shown is set to 295°; the tail of the pointer indicates the reciprocal, 115°. The course deviation bar operates with a VOR/Localizer (VOR/LOC) or GPS navigation receiver to indicate left or right deviations from the course selected with the course select pointer; operating in the same manner, the angular movement of a conventional VOR/LOC needle indicates deviation from course.


The desired course is selected by rotating the course select pointer, in relation to the compass card, by means of the course select knob. The HSI has a fixed aircraft symbol and the course deviation bar displays the aircraft’s position relative to the selected course. The TO/FROM indicator is a triangular pointer. When the indicator points to the head of the course select pointer, the arrow shows the course selected. If properly intercepted and flown, the course takes the aircraft to the chosen facility. When the indicator points to the tail of the course, the arrow shows that the course selected, if properly intercepted and flown, takes the aircraft directly away from the chosen facility.

When the NAV warning flag appears, it indicates no reliable signal is being received. The appearance of the HDG flag indicates the compass card is not functioning properly.

Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)

The RMI is a navigational aid providing aircraft magnetic or directional gyro heading and very high frequency omnidirectional range (VOR), GPS, and automatic direction finder (ADF) bearing information. [Figure 16-31] Remote indicating compasses were developed to compensate for errors in and limitations of older types of heading indicators. The remote compass transmitter is a separate unit usually mounted in a wingtip to eliminate the possibility of magnetic interference. The RMI consists of a compass card, a heading index, two bearing pointers, and pointer function switches. The two pointers are driven by any two combinations of a GPS, an ADF, and/or a VOR. The pilot has the ability to select the navigation aid to be indicated. The pointer indicates the course to the selected NAVAID or waypoint. In Figure 16-31, the green pointer is indicating the station tuned on the ADF. The yellow pointer is indicating the course to a VOR or GPS waypoint. Note that there is no requirement for a pilot to select a course with the RMI. Only the selected navigation source is pointed to by the needle(s).

Figure 16-31. Radio magnetic indicator.

Figure 16-31. Radio magnetic indicator.

Tracking With VOR

The following describes a step-by-step procedure for tracking to and from a VOR station using a CDI. Figure 16-32 illustrates the procedure.

Figure 16-32. Tracking a radial in a crosswind.

Figure 16-32. Tracking a radial in a crosswind.

First, tune the VOR receiver to the frequency of the selected VOR station. For example, 115.0 to receive Bravo VOR. Next, check the identifiers to verify that the desired VOR is being received. As soon as the VOR is properly tuned, the course deviation needle deflects either left or right. Then, rotate the azimuth dial to the course selector until the course deviation needle centers and the TO-FROM indicator indicates “TO.” If the needle centers with a “FROM” indication, the azimuth should be rotated 180° because, in this case, it is desired to fly “TO” the station. Now, turn the aircraft to the heading indicated on the VOR azimuth dial or course selector, 350° in this example.

If a heading of 350° is maintained with a wind from the right as shown, the aircraft drifts to the left of the intended track. As the aircraft drifts off course, the VOR course deviation needle gradually moves to the right of center or indicates the direction of the desired radial or track.


To return to the desired radial, the aircraft heading must be altered to the right. As the aircraft returns to the desired track, the deviation needle slowly returns to center. When centered, the aircraft is on the desired radial and a left turn must be made toward, but not to the original heading of 350° because a wind drift correction must be established. The amount of correction depends upon the strength of the wind. If the wind velocity is unknown, a trial-and-error method can be used to find the correct heading. Assume, for this example, a 10° correction for a heading of 360° is maintained.

While maintaining a heading of 360°, assume that the course deviation begins to move to the left. This means that the wind correction of 10° is too great and the aircraft is flying to the right of course. A slight turn to the left should be made to permit the aircraft to return to the desired radial.

When the deviation needle centers, a small wind drift correction of 5° or a heading correction of 355° should be flown. If this correction is adequate, the aircraft remains on the radial. If not, small variations in heading should be made to keep the needle centered and consequently keep the aircraft on the radial.

As the VOR station is passed, the course deviation needle fluctuates, then settles down, and the “TO” indication changes to “FROM.” If the aircraft passes to one side of the station, the needle deflects in the direction of the station as the indicator changes to “FROM.”

Generally, the same techniques apply when tracking outbound as those used for tracking inbound. If the intent is to fly over the station and track outbound on the reciprocal of the inbound radial, the course selector should not be changed. Corrections are made in the same manner to keep the needle centered. The only difference is that the omnidirectional range indicator indicates “FROM.”

If tracking outbound on a course other than the reciprocal of the inbound radial, this new course or radial must be set in the course selector and a turn made to intercept this course. After this course is reached, tracking procedures are the same as previously discussed.