Helicopter Flight Manual Limitations
Helicopters are certificated for IFR operations with either one or two pilots. Certain equipment is required to be installed and functional for two-pilot operations and additional equipment is required for single-pilot operation.
In addition, the Helicopter Flight Manual (HFM) defines systems and functions that are required to be in operation or engaged for IFR flight in either the single or two-pilot configurations. Often, in a two-pilot operation, this level of augmentation is less than the full capability of the installed systems. Likewise, a single-pilot operation may require a higher level of augmentation.
The HFM also identifies other specific limitations associated with IFR flight. Typically, these limitations include, but are not limited to:
- Minimum equipment required for IFR flight (in some cases, for both single-pilot and two-pilot operations)
- VMINI (minimum speed—IFR) [Figure 7-2]
- VNEI (never exceed speed—IFR)
- Maximum approach angle
- Weight and center of gravity (CG) limits
- Helicopter configuration limitations (such as door positions and external loads)
- Helicopter system limitations (generators, inverters, etc.)
- System testing requirements (many avionics and AFCS, AP, and FD systems incorporate a self-test feature)
- Pilot action requirements (for example, the pilot must have hands and feet on the controls during certain operations, such as an instrument approach below certain altitudes)
Final approach angles/descent gradient for public approach procedures can be as high as 7.5 degrees/795 ft/NM. At 70 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS) (no wind), this equates to a descent rate of 925 fpm. With a 10-knot tailwind, the descent rate increases to 1,056 fpm. “Copter” Point-in-space (PinS) approach procedures are restricted to helicopters with a maximum VMINI of 70 KIAS and an IFR approach angle that enables them to meet the final approach angle/descent gradient. Pilots of helicopters with a VMINI of 70 KIAS may have inadequate control margins to fly an approach that is designed with the maximum allowable angle/descent gradient or minimum allowable deceleration distance from the missed approach point (MAP) to the heliport. The “Copter” PinS final approach segment is limited to 70 KIAS since turn containment and the deceleration distance from the MAP to the heliport may not be adequate at faster speeds. For some helicopters, engaging the autopilot may increase the VMINI to a speed greater than 70 KIAS, or in the “go around” (G/A) mode, require a speed faster than 70 KIAS. [Figure 7-2] It may be possible for these helicopters to be flown manually on the approach or on the missed approach in a mode other than the G/A mode.
Since slower IFR approach speeds enable the helicopter to fly steeper approaches and reduces the distance from the heliport that is required to decelerate the helicopter, you may want to operate your helicopter at speeds slower than its established VMINI. The provision to apply for a determination of equivalent safety for instrument flight below VMINI and the minimum helicopter requirements are specified in Advisory Circulars (AC) 27-1, Certification of Normal Category Rotorcraft and AC 29-2, Certification of Transport Category Rotorcraft. Application guidance is available from the Rotorcraft Directorate Standards Staff, ASW-110, 2601 Meacham Blvd., Fort Worth, Texas, 761374298, (817) 222-5111.
Performance data may not be available in the HFM for speeds other than the best rate of climb speed. To meet missed approach climb gradients, pilots may use observed performance for similar weight, altitude, temperature, and speed conditions to determine equivalent performance. When missed approaches utilizing a climbing turn are flown with an autopilot, set the heading bug on the missed approach heading, and then at the MAP, engage the indicated airspeed mode, followed immediately by applying climb power and selecting the heading mode. This is important since the autopilot roll rate and maximum bank angle in the Heading Select mode are significantly more robust than in the NAV mode. Figure 7-3 represents the bank angle and roll limits of the S76 used by the FAA for flight testing. It has a roll rate in the Heading Select mode of 5 degrees per second with only 1 degree per second in the NAV mode. The bank angle in the Heading Select mode is 20 degrees, with only 17 degrees in the NAV Change Over mode. Furthermore, if the Airspeed Hold mode is not selected on some autopilots when commencing the missed approach, the helicopter accelerates in level flight until the best rate of climb is attained, and only then will a climb begin.
WAAS localizer performance (LP) lateral-only PinS testing conducted in 2005 by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center in New Jersey for helicopter PinS also captured the flight tracks for turning missed approaches. [Figure 7-4] The large flight tracks that resulted during the turning missed approach were attributed in part to operating the autopilot in the NAV mode and exceeding the 70 KIAS limit.
A flight operated under 14 CFR Part 135 has minimums and procedures more restrictive than a flight operated under 14 CFR Part 91. These Part 135 requirements are detailed in their operations specifications (OpSpecs). Helicopter Air Ambulance (HAA) operators have even more restrictive OpSpecs. Shown in Figure 7-5 is an excerpt from an OpSpecs detailing the minimums for precision approaches. The inlay in Figure 7-5 shows the minimums for the ILS Runway 3R approach at Detroit Metro Airport. With all lighting operative, the minimums for helicopter Part 91 operations are a 200-foot ceiling, and 1,200-feet runway visual range (RVR) – one-half airplane Category A visibility but no less than 1⁄4 SM/1,200 RVR. However, as shown in the OpSpecs, the minimum visibility this Part 135 operator must adhere to is 1,600 RVR. Pilots operating under 14 CFR Part 91 are encouraged to develop their own personal OpSpecs based on their own equipment, training, and experience.
Minimum Equipment List (MEL)
A helicopter operating under 14 CFR Part 135 with certain installed equipment inoperative is prohibited from taking off unless the operation is authorized in the approved MEL. The MEL provides for some equipment to be inoperative if certain conditions are met. [Figure 7-6] In many cases, a helicopter configured for single-pilot IFR may depart IFR with certain equipment inoperative provided a crew of two pilots is used. Under 14 CFR Part 91, a pilot may defer certain items without an MEL if those items are not required by the type certificate, CFRs, or airworthiness directives (ADs), and the flight can be performed safely without them. If the item is disabled, removed, or marked inoperative, a logbook entry is made.
Helicopters of the same make and model may have variations in installed avionics that change the required equipment or the level of augmentation for a particular operation. The complexity of modern AFCS, AP, and FD systems requires a high degree of understanding to safely and efficiently control the helicopter in IFR operations. Formal training in the use of these systems is highly recommended for all pilots.
During flight operations, you must be aware of the mode of operation of the augmentation system and the control logic and functions employed. [Figure 7-2]