“G” is an abbreviation for acceleration due to the earth’s gravity. A person standing on the ground or sitting in an aircraft in level flight is experiencing one G. An aircraft in a tight, banked turn with the pilot being pressed into the seat is experiencing more than one G or high-G conditions. A person beginning a downward ride in an elevator or riding down a steep track on a roller coaster is experiencing less than one G or low-G conditions. The best way for a pilot to recognize low G is a weightless feeling similar to the start of a downward elevator ride.
Helicopters rely on positive G to provide much or all of their response to pilot control inputs. The pilot uses the cyclic to tilt the rotor disk, and, at one G, the rotor is producing thrust equal to aircraft weight. The tilting of the thrust vector provides a moment about the center of gravity to pitch or roll the fuselage. In a low-G condition, the thrust and consequently the control authority are greatly reduced.
Although their control ability is reduced, multi-bladed (three or more blades) helicopters can generate some moment about the fuselage independent of thrust due to the rotor hub design with the blade attachment offset from the center of rotation. However, helicopters with two-bladed teetering rotors rely entirely on the tilt of the thrust vector for control. Therefore, low-G conditions can be catastrophic for two-bladed helicopters.
At lower speeds, such as initiation of a takeoff from hover or the traditional recovery from vortex ring state, forward cyclic maneuvers do not cause low G and are safe to perform. However, an abrupt forward cyclic input or pushover in a two-bladed helicopter can be dangerous and must be avoided, particularly at higher speeds. During a pushover from moderate or high airspeed, as the helicopter noses over, it enters a low-G condition. Thrust is reduced, and the pilot has lost control of fuselage attitude but may not immediately realize it. Tail rotor thrust or other aerodynamic factors will often induce a roll. The pilot still has control of the rotor disk, and may instinctively try to correct the roll, but the fuselage does not respond due to the lack of thrust. If the fuselage is rolling right, and the pilot puts in left cyclic to correct, the combination of fuselage angle to the right and rotor disk angle to the left becomes quite large and may exceed the clearances built into the rotor hub. This results in the hub contacting the rotor mast, which is known as mast bumping. [Figure 11-8] Low-G mast bumping has been the cause of numerous military and civilian fatal accidents. It was initially encountered during nap-of-the-earth flying, a very low-altitude tactical flight technique used by the military where the aircraft flies following the contours of the geographical terrain. The accident sequence may be extremely rapid, and the energy and inertia in the rotor system can sever the mast or allow rotor blades to strike the tail or other portions of the helicopter.
Turbulence, especially severe downdrafts, can also cause a low-G condition and, when combined with high airspeed, may lead to mast bumping. Typically, helicopters handle turbulence better than a light airplane due to smaller surface area of the rotor blades. During flight in turbulence, momentary excursions in airspeed, altitude, and attitude are to be expected. Pilots should respond with smooth, gentle control inputs and avoid overcontrolling. Most importantly, pilots should slow down, as mast bumping is less likely at lower airspeeds.
Pilots can avoid mast bumping accidents as follows:
- Avoid abrupt forward cyclic inputs in two-bladed helicopters. Airplane pilots may find this a difficult habit to break because pushing the nose down is an accepted collision avoidance maneuver in an airplane. Helicopter pilots would accomplish the same rapid descent by lowering the collective, and airplane pilots should train to make this instinctual.
- Recognize the weightless feeling associated with the onset of low G and quickly take corrective action before the situation becomes critical.
- Recognize that uncommanded right roll for helicopters with main rotors which rotate counter-clockwise when viewed from above indicates that loss of control is imminent, and immediate corrective action must be taken.
- Recover from a low-G situation by first gently applying aft cyclic to restore normal G before attempting to correct any roll.
- If turbulence is expected or encountered, reduce power and use a slower than normal cruise speed. Turbulence (where high rotor flapping angles are already present), and higher airspeeds (where the controls are more sensitive) both increase susceptibility to low-G conditions.
- Use a flight simulator to learn to recognize and experience low G conditions that result in mast bumping, its correct recovery technique, and the consequences of using incorrect recovery actions. Refer to Chapter 14, Simulation.
Multi-bladed rotors may experience a phenomenon similar to mast bumping known as droop stop pounding if flapping clearances are exceeded, but because they retain some control authority at low G, occurrences are less common than for teetering rotors.