Analog Instrument Failure
A warning indicator, or an inconsistency between indications on the attitude indicator and the supporting performance instruments, usually identifies system or instrument failure. Aircraft control must be maintained while identifying the failed component(s). Expedite the cross-check and include all flight instruments. The problem may be individual instrument failure or a system failure affecting multiple instruments.
One method of identification involves an immediate comparison of the attitude indicator with the rate-of-turn indicator and vertical speed indicator (VSI). Along with providing pitch-and-bank information, this technique compares the static system with the suction or pressure system and the electrical system. Identify the failed component(s) and use the remaining functional instruments to maintain aircraft control.
Attempt to restore the inoperative component(s) by checking the appropriate power source, changing to a backup or alternate system, and resetting the instrument if possible. Covering the failed instrument(s) may enhance a pilot’s ability to maintain aircraft control and navigate the aircraft. Usually, the next step is to advise ATC of the problem and, if necessary, declare an emergency before the situation deteriorates beyond the pilot’s ability to recover.
Pneumatic System Failure
One possible cause of instrument failure is a loss of the suction or pressure source. This pressure or suction is supplied by a vacuum pump mechanically driven off the engine. Occasionally these pumps fail, leaving the pilot with inoperative attitude and heading indicators.
Figure 11-8 illustrates inoperative vacuum driven attitude and heading indicators that can fail progressively. As the gyroscopes slow down, they may wander, which, if connected to the autopilot and/or flight director, can cause incorrect movement or erroneous indications. In Figure 11-8, the aircraft is actually level and at 2,000 feet mean sea level (MSL). It is not in a turn to the left which the pilot may misinterpret if he or she fails to see the off or failed flags. If that occurs, the pilot may transform a normally benign situation into a hazardous situation. Again, good decisionmaking by the pilot only occurs after a careful analysis of systems.Many small aircraft are not equipped with a warning system for vacuum failure; therefore, the pilot should monitor the system’s vacuum/pressure gauge. This can be a hazardous situation with the potential to lead the unsuspecting pilot into a dangerous unusual attitude that would require a partial panel recovery. It is important that pilots practice instrument flight without reference to the attitude and heading indicators in preparation for such a failure.
Pitot/Static System Failure
A pitot or static system failure can also cause erratic and unreliable instrument indications. When a static system problem occurs, it affects the ASI, altimeter, and the VSI. In most aircraft, provisions have been made for the pilot to select an alternate static source. Check the POH/AFM for the location and operation of the alternate static source. In the absence of an alternate static source, in an unpressurized aircraft, the pilot could break the glass on the VSI. The VSI is not required for instrument flight, and breaking the glass provides the altimeter and the ASI a source of static pressure. This procedure could cause additional instrument errors.
Communication/Navigation System Malfunction
Avionics equipment has become very reliable, and the likelihood of a complete communications failure is remote. However, each IFR flight should be planned and executed in anticipation of a two-way radio failure. At any given point during a flight, the pilot must know exactly what route to fly, what altitude to fly, and when to continue beyond a clearance limit. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91 describes the procedures to be followed in case of a two-way radio communications failure. If operating in VFR conditions at the time of the failure, the pilot should continue the flight under VFR and land as soon as practicable. If the failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if VFR conditions cannot be maintained, the pilot must continue the flight:
- Along the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
- If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance;
- In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or
- In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.
The pilot should maintain the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the route segment being flown:
- The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
- The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate, to minimum flight level as prescribed in 14 CFR, part 91 for IFR operations); or
- The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.
In addition to route and altitude, the pilot must also plan the progress of the flight to leave the clearance limit.
- When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received. If an expect-further-clearance time has not been received, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time en route.
- If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received. If no expect-further-clearance time has been received, leave the clearance limit upon arrival over it, and proceed to a fix from which an approach begins and commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time en route. [Figure 11-8]
While following these procedures, set the transponder to code 7600, and use all means possible to reestablish two-way radio communication with ATC. This includes monitoring navigational aids (NAVAIDs), attempting radio contact with other aircraft, and attempting contact with a nearby flight service station (FSS).