Diet and general physical health have an impact on how well a person can see in the dark. Deficiencies in vitamins A and C have been shown to reduce night acuity. Other factors, such as carbon monoxide poisoning, smoking, alcohol, and certain drugs can greatly decrease night vision. Lack of oxygen can also decrease night vision as the eye requires more oxygen per unit weight than any other part of the body.
Good night visual acuity is needed for collision avoidance. Night scanning, like day scanning, uses a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements in 10° sectors. Unlike day scanning, however, off-center viewing is used to focus objects on the rods rather than the fovea blindspot. [Figure 12-4] When looking at an object, avoid staring at it too long. If staring at an object without moving the eyes, the retina becomes accustomed to the light intensity and the image begins to fade. To keep it clearly visible, new areas in the retina must be exposed to the image. Small, circular eye movements help eliminate the fading. Also, move the eyes more slowly from sector to sector than during the day to prevent blurring.
During daylight, objects can be perceived at a great distance with good detail. At night, range is limited, and detail is poor. Objects along the flight path can be more readily identified at night, by using the proper techniques to scan the terrain. To scan effectively, pilots look from side to side. They should begin scanning at the greatest distance at which an object can be perceived high on the horizon, thence moving inward toward the position of the aircraft. Figure 12-5 shows this scanning pattern. Because the light-sensitive elements of the retina are unable to perceive images that are in motion, a stop-turn-stop-turn motion should be used. For each stop, an area about 30 degrees wide should be scanned. This viewing angle includes an area about 250 meters wide at a distance of 500 meters. The duration of each stop is based on the degree of detail that is required, but no stop should last more than two or three seconds. When moving from one viewing point to the next, pilots should overlap the previous field of view by 10 degrees. This scanning technique allows greater clarity in observing the periphery. Other scanning techniques, as illustrated in Figure 12-6, may be developed to fit the situation.
Obstructions having poor reflective surfaces, such as wires and small tree limbs, are difficult to detect. The best way to locate wires is by looking for the support structures. However, pilots should review the most current hazard maps with known wire locations before night flights.
In order to see other aircraft more clearly, regulations require that all aircraft operating during the night hours have special lights and equipment. The requirements for operating at night are found in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91. In addition to aircraft lighting, the regulations also provide a definition of night flight in accordance with 14 CFR part 91, currency requirements, fuel reserves, and necessary electrical systems.
Position lights enable a pilot to locate another aircraft, as well as help determine its direction of flight. The approved aircraft lights for night operations are a green light on the right cabin side or wingtip, a red light on the left cabin side or wingtip, and a white position light on the tail. In addition, flashing aviation red or white anticollision lights are required for all flights, if equipped on the aircraft and in an operable condition (in accordance with 14 CFR Section 91.209(b), which aids in the identification during night conditions). These flashing lights can be in a number of locations but are most commonly found on the top and bottom of the cabin.
Figure 12-7 shows examples of aircraft lighting. By interpreting the position lights on other aircraft, the pilot in aircraft 3 can determine whether the aircraft is flying in the opposite direction or is on a collision course. If a red position light is seen to the right of a green light, such as shown by aircraft 1, it is flying toward aircraft 3. A pilot should watch this aircraft closely and be ready to change course. Aircraft 2, on the other hand, is flying away from aircraft 3, as indicated by the white position light.
Illusions give false impressions or misconceptions of actual conditions; therefore, pilots must understand the type of illusions that can occur and the resulting disorientation. Although the eye is the most reliable of the senses, some illusions can result from misinterpreting what is seen; what is perceived is not always accurate. Even with the references outside the cockpit and the display of instruments inside, pilots must be on guard to interpret information correctly.
Relative motion is the falsely perceived self-motion in relation to the motion of another object. The most common example is as follows. An individual in a car is stopped at a traffic light and another car pulls alongside. The individual who was stopped at the light perceives the forward motion of the second car as his or her own motion rearward. This results in the individual applying more pressure to the brakes unnecessarily. This illusion can be encountered during flight in situations such as formation flight, hover taxi, or hovering over water or tall grass.
Confusion with Ground Lights
Confusion with ground lights occurs when a pilot mistakes ground lights for stars. The pilot can place the helicopter in an extremely dangerous flight attitude if he or she aligns it with the wrong lights. In Figure 12-8A, the helicopter is aligned with a road and not with the horizon. Isolated ground lights can appear as stars and could lead to the illusion that the helicopter is in a nose-high attitude.
When no stars are visible because of overcast conditions, unlighted areas of terrain can blend with the dark overcast to create the illusion that the unlighted terrain is part of the sky in Figure 12-8B. In this illusion, the shoreline is mistaken for the horizon. In an attempt to correct for the apparent nose-high attitude, a pilot may lower the collective and attempt to fly “beneath the shore.” This illusion can be avoided by referencing the flight instruments and establishing a true horizon and attitude.
Reversible Perspective Illusion
At night, an aircraft or helicopter may appear to be moving away when it is actually approaching. If the pilot of each aircraft has the same assumption, and the rate of closure is significant, by the time each pilot realizes his or her own error in assumption, it may be too late to avoid a mishap. This illusion is called reversible perspective and is often experienced when a pilot observes another aircraft or helicopter flying an approaching, parallel course. To determine the direction of flight, the pilot should observe the other aircraft’s position lights. Remember the following: red on right returning; that is, if an aircraft is seen with the red position light on the right and the green position light on the left, the observed aircraft is traveling in the opposite direction.
Flicker vertigo is technically not an illusion; however, as most people are aware from personal experience, viewing a flickering light can be both distracting and annoying. Flicker vertigo may be created by helicopter rotor blades or airplane propellers interrupting direct sunlight at a rate of 4 to 20 cycles per second. Flashing anticollision strobe lights, especially while the aircraft is in the clouds, can also produce this effect. One should also be aware that photic stimuli at certain frequencies could produce seizures in those rare individuals who are susceptible to flicker-induced epilepsy.