There are many acceptable methods of precomputation in general usage. However, these methods are basically either graphical, mathematical, or a combination of both methods. Selection is largely based on individual navigator preference. Celestial corrections that are used in precomputation include atmospheric refraction, parallax of the moon, instrument and acceleration errors, Coriolis and rhumb line, precession and nutation, motion of the observer, and wander. With precomputation, new corrections and terminology are introduced that include fix time, solution time, observation time, scheduled time, and motion of the body adjustment.
Fix time is the time for which the lines of position (LOP) are resolved and plotted on the chart. Solution time is the time for which the astronomical triangle is solved. Observation time is the midtime of the actual observation for each celestial body. Scheduled time is the time for which the astronomical triangle is solved for each LOP in the graphic method. Motion of the body correction is used to correct for the changing altitude of the selected bodies from shot to fix time and may be applied either graphically or mathematically.
Motion of the Body Correction
Motion of the body correction can be applied graphically by moving the assumed position eastward or westward for time. This is possible because the Greenwich hour angle (GHA) and the subpoint of the body move westward at the rate of 1° of longitude per 4 minutes of time. In the graphic method, a scheduled time of observation is given to each body. If shooting is off schedule, the following rules apply:
- For every minute of time that the shot is taken early, move the assumed position 15′ of longitude to the east; for every minute of time that the shot is taken late, move the assumed position 15′ of longitude to the west.
- When the latitude of the assumed position and the Zn of the body are known, the motion of the body can be computed mathematically. For 1 minute, the formula is: 15(cos lat)/(sin Zn). This correction is shown in tabular form in Figure 10-1.
The National Imagery and Mapping Agency has published the Sight Reduction Tables for Air Navigation in a publication referred to as Pub. No. 249. These tables are published in three volumes. Volume 1, used by both the marine and air navigator, contains the altitude and azimuth values of seven selected stars for the complete ranges of latitude and hour angle of Aries. These seven stars represent the best selection for observation at any given position and time, and provide the data for presetting instruments before observation and for sight reduction afterwards. Volumes 2 and 3 cover latitudes 0-40 and 39-89 respectively and are primarily used by the air navigator in conjunction with observations of celestial bodies to calculate the geographic position of the observer.
In Publication No. 249, the local hour angle (LHA) increases 1° in 4 minutes of time. Thus, the Hc for an LHA that is 1° less than the LHA used for precomputation is the Hc for 4 minutes of time earlier than the solution time. The difference between the two Hcs is the value to apply to the Hc or Hs to advance or retard the LOP for 4 minutes of time. If the Hc decreases (Zn greater than 180°), the body is setting and the sign is minus (–) to advance the LOP if the value is applied to the Hs. If the Hc increases (Zn less than 180°), the body is rising and the sign is plus (+) to advance the LOP if the value is applied to the Hs.
In addition, motion corrections may be determined by using a modified MB-4 computer. This modification allows for greater accuracy and speed in computation of combined motions (motion of the observer and motion of the body) than the Pub. No. 249 tables.
Special Celestial Techniques
The main difference between the basic methods of precomputation is the manner in which the motion of the observer and the motion of the body corrections are applied. In the graphic method, both corrections are applied graphically by movement of the assumed position or the LOP. In the mathematical method, both corrections are applied mathematically to the Hc, the Hs, or the intercept after being obtained from tables, a modified MB-4 computer, or the Pub. No. 249.