S-Turns Across a Road
An S-turn across a road is a practice maneuver in which the aircraft’s ground track describes semicircles of equal radii on each side of a selected straight line on the ground. Reference Figure 9-6 throughout this S-turn across the road section.
The straight line may be a road, fence, railroad, or section line that lies perpendicular to the wind and should be of sufficient length for making a series of turns. A constant altitude should be maintained throughout the maneuver.
S-turns across a road present one of the most elementary problems in the practical application of the turn and in the correction for wind drift in turns. While the application of this maneuver is considerably less advanced in some respects than the rectangular course, it is taught after the student has been introduced to that maneuver in order that the student may have a knowledge of the correction for wind drift in straight flight along a reference line before the student attempts to correct for drift by playing a turn.
The objectives of S-turns across a road are to develop the ability to compensate for drift during turns, orient the flightpath with ground references, follow an assigned ground track, arrive at specified points on assigned headings, and divide the pilot’s attention. The maneuver consists of crossing the road at a 90° angle and immediately beginning a series of 180° turns of uniform radius in opposite directions, re-crossing the road at a 90° angle just as each 180° turn is completed. The maneuver can be started with either a left hand turn or a right hand turn to go in either direction. Figure 9-6 starts the turn in a left hand turn as an example.
Accomplishing a constant radius ground track requires a changing roll rate and angle of bank to establish the wind correction angle. Both increase or decrease as the groundspeed increases or decreases.
The bank must be steepest when beginning the turn on the downwind side of the road and must be shallowed gradually as the turn progresses from a downwind heading to an upwind heading. On the upwind side, the turn should be started with a relatively shallow bank and then gradually steepened as the aircraft turns from an upwind heading to a downwind heading. In this maneuver, the aircraft should be rolled from one bank directly into the opposite just as the 90° reference line on the ground is crossed.
Before starting the maneuver, a straight ground reference line or road that lies 90° to the direction of the wind should be selected, then the area checked to ensure that no obstructions or other aircraft are in the immediate vicinity. The road should be approached from the upwind side at the selected altitude on a downwind heading. When directly over the road, the first turn should be started immediately. [Figure 9-6, position 1 and Figure 9-7]
With the aircraft headed downwind, the groundspeed is greatest and the rate of departure from the road is rapid; the roll into the steep bank must be fairly rapid to attain the proper wind correction angle. [Figure 9-6, position 2] This prevents the aircraft from flying too far from the road and from establishing a ground track of excessive radius.
During the latter portion of the first 90° turn, when the aircraft’s heading is changing from a downwind heading to a crosswind heading, the groundspeed becomes less and the rate of departure from the road decreases. [Figure 9-6, position 2 to 3, and Figure 9-8] The wind correction angle is at the maximum when the aircraft is headed directly crosswind. [Figure 9-6, position 3]
After turning 90°, the aircraft’s heading becomes more and more an upwind heading, the groundspeed decreases, and the rate of closure with the road becomes slower. If a constant steep bank were maintained, the aircraft would turn too quickly for the slower rate of closure and would prematurely be headed perpendicular to the road. Because of the decreasing groundspeed and rate of closure while approaching the upwind heading, it is necessary to gradually shallow the bank during the remaining 90° of the semicircle, so that the wind correction angle is removed completely [Figure 9-9] and the wings become level as the 180° turn is completed at the moment the road is reached. [Figure 9-6, position 4]
At the instant the road is being crossed at 90° to it, a turn in the opposite direction should be started. Since the aircraft is still flying into the headwind, the groundspeed is relatively low. Therefore, the turn must be started with a shallow bank to avoid an excessive rate of turn that would establish the maximum wind correction angle too soon. The degree of bank should be that which is necessary to attain the proper wind correction angle so the ground track describes an arc the same size as the one established on the downwind side.
Since the aircraft is turning from an upwind to a downwind heading, the groundspeed increases and after turning 90° the rate of closure with the road increases rapidly. [Figure 9-6, position 5]
Consequently, the angle of bank and rate of turn must be progressively increased so that the aircraft has turned 180° at the time it reaches the road. Again, the rollout must be timed so the aircraft is in straight-and-level flight directly over and perpendicular to the road. [Figure 9-6, position 6]
Throughout the maneuver a constant altitude and airspeed should be maintained, and the bank should be changing constantly to effect a true semicircular ground track. Common errors in the performance of S-turns across a road are:
- Failure to adequately clear the area.
- Creating too small of a radius/too high of a banked turn during the start of the maneuver.
- Creating banked turns too high to complete the maneuver.
- Poor coordination creating variations in airspeeds.
- Gaining or losing altitude.
- Inability to visualize the half circle ground track.
- Poor timing in beginning and recovering from turns.
- Faulty correction for drift.
- Inadequate visual lookout for other aircraft.
- Inability to judge closure rates to the road and adjust the bank angle so the semi-circle is completed at 90° to the reference road.
Turns Around a Point
Turns around a point, as a training maneuver, is a logical extension of the principles involved in the performance of S-turns across a road. The objectives are to:
- Further perfect turning technique.
- Perfect the ability to control the aircraft subconsciously while dividing attention between the flightpath and ground references.
- Teach the student that the radius of a turn is a distance that is affected by the degree of bank used when turning with relation to a definite object.
- Develop a keen perception of altitude.
- Perfect the ability to correct for wind drift while in turns.
In turns around a point, the aircraft is flown in two or more complete circles of uniform radii or distance from a prominent ground reference point using a maximum bank of approximately 45° while maintaining a constant altitude.
The factors and principles of drift correction that are involved in S-turns are also applicable in this maneuver. As in other ground track maneuvers, a constant radius around a point requires a constantly changing angle of bank and angles of wind correction if any wind exists. The closer the aircraft is to a direct downwind heading where the groundspeed is greatest, the steeper the bank and the faster the rate of turn required to establish the proper wind correction angle. The more nearly it is to a direct upwind heading where the groundspeed is least, the shallower the bank and the slower the rate of turn required to establish the proper wind correction angle. Throughout the maneuver, the bank and rate of turn must be varied gradually in proportion to the groundspeed.
The point selected for turns around a point should be prominent, easily distinguished by the pilot, and yet small enough to present precise reference. [Figures 9-10 through 9-12]
Isolated trees, crossroads, or other similar small landmarks are usually suitable. Right and left hand turns about a point should be practiced to develop technique in both directions. The example used here is right hand turns.
To enter turns around a point, the aircraft should be flown on a downwind heading to one side of the selected point at a distance equal to the desired radius of turn. When any significant wind exists, it will be necessary to roll into the initial bank at a rapid rate so that the steepest bank is attained abeam of the point when the aircraft is headed directly downwind. By entering the maneuver while heading directly downwind, the steepest bank can be attained immediately. Thus, if a maximum bank of 45° is desired, the initial bank is 45° if the aircraft is at the correct distance from the point. Thereafter, the bank is shallowed gradually until the point is reached at which the aircraft is headed directly upwind. At this point, the bank should be gradually steepened until the steepest bank is again attained when heading downwind at the initial point of entry.
Just as S-turns require that the aircraft be turned into the wind in addition to varying the bank, so do turns around a point. During the downwind half of the circle, the aircraft’s nose is progressively turned toward the inside of the circle; during the upwind half, the nose is progressively turned toward the outside. The downwind half of the turn around the point may be compared to the downwind side of the S-turn across a road; the upwind half of the turn around a point may be compared to the upwind side of the S-turn across a road.
As the pilot becomes experienced in performing turns around a point and has a good understanding of the effects of wind drift and varying the bank angle and wind correction angle as required, entry into the maneuver may be from any point. When entering the maneuver at a point other than downwind, however, the radius of the turn should be carefully selected. Be sure to take into account the wind velocity and groundspeed so that an excessive bank is not required later on to maintain the proper ground track. The flight instructor should place particular emphasis on the effect of an incorrect initial bank.
Common errors in the performance of turns around a point are:
- Failure to clear the area adequately.
- Failure to establish appropriate bank on entry.
- Failure to recognize wind drift.
- Inadequate bank angle and/or inadequate wind correction angle on the downwind portion of the circle, resulting in drift away from the reference point.
- Excessive bank and/or inadequate wind correction angle on the upwind side of the circle, resulting in drift towards the reference point.
- Gaining or losing altitude.
- Inability to maintain a constant airspeed.
- Inadequate visual lookout for other aircraft.
- Inability to direct attention outside the aircraft while maintaining precise aircraft control.