The pitch attitude of an airplane is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the actual horizon. In level flight, the pitch attitude varies with airspeed and load. For training purposes, the latter factor can normally be disregarded in small airplanes. At a constant airspeed, there is only one specific pitch attitude for level flight. At slow cruise speeds, the level flight attitude is nose high with indications as in Figure 7-1; at fast cruise speeds, the level-flight attitude is nose low. [Figure 7-2] Figure 7-3 shows the indications for the attitude at normal cruise speeds. The instruments used to determine the pitch attitude of the aircraft are the attitude indicator, the altimeter, the vertical speed indicator (VSI), and the airspeed indicator (ASI).
The attitude indicator gives the direct indication of pitch attitude. The desired pitch attitude is gained by using the elevator control to raise or lower the miniature aircraft in relation to the horizon bar. This corresponds to the way pitch attitude is adjusted in visual flight by raising or lowering the nose of the airplane in relation to the natural horizon. However, unless the airspeed is constant, and until the level flight attitude for that airspeed has been identified and established, there is no way to know whether level flight as indicated on the attitude indicator is resulting in level flight as shown on the altimeter, VSI, and ASI. If the miniature aircraft of the attitude indicator is properly adjusted on the ground before takeoff, it shows approximately level flight at normal cruise speed when the pilot completes the level off from a climb. If further adjustment of the miniature aircraft is necessary, the other pitch instruments must be used to maintain level flight while the adjustment is made.
To practice pitch control for level flight using only the attitude indicator, use the following exercise. Restrict the displacement of the horizon bar to a one-half bar width, a bar width up or down, then a one-and-one-half bar width. One-half, one, and one-and-one-half bar width nose-high attitudes are shown in Figures 7-4, 7-5, and 7-6.
An instructor pilot can demonstrate these normal pitch corrections and compare the indications on the attitude indicator with the airplane’s position to the natural horizon.
Pitch attitude changes for corrections to level flight by reference to instruments are much smaller than those commonly used for visual flight. With the airplane correctly trimmed for level flight, the elevator displacement and the control pressures necessary to effect these standard pitch changes are usually very slight. The following are a few helpful hints to help determine how much elevator control pressure is required.
First, a tight grip on the controls makes it difficult to feel control pressure changes. Relaxing and learning to control the aircraft usually takes considerable conscious effort during the early stages of instrument training.
Second, make smooth and small pitch changes with positive pressure. With practice, a pilot can make these small pitch corrections up or down, “freezing” (holding constant) the one-half, full, and one-and-one-half bar widths on the attitude indicator.
Third, with the airplane properly trimmed for level flight, momentarily release all pressure on the elevator control when becoming aware of tenseness. This is a reminder that the airplane is stable; except under turbulent conditions, it maintains level flight if left alone. Even when no control change is called for, it is difficult to resist the impulse to move the controls. This may be one of the most difficult initial training problems in instrument flight.
At constant power, any deviation from level flight (except in turbulent air) is the result of a pitch change. Therefore, the altimeter gives an indirect indication of the pitch attitude in level flight, assuming constant power. Since the altitude should remain constant when the airplane is in level flight, any deviation from the desired altitude signals the need for a pitch change. If the aircraft is gaining altitude, the nose must be lowered. [Figures 7-7 and 7-8]
The rate of movement of the altimeter needle is as important as its direction of movement in maintaining level flight without the use of the attitude indicator. An excessive pitch deviation from level flight results in a relatively rapid change of altitude; a slight pitch deviation causes a slow change. Thus, if the altimeter needle moves rapidly clockwise, assume a considerable nose-high deviation from level flight attitude. Conversely, if the needle moves slowly counterclockwise to indicate a slightly nose-low attitude, assume that the pitch correction necessary to regain the desired altitude is small. As the altimeter is added to the attitude indicator in a crosscheck, a pilot learns to recognize the rate of movement of the altimeter needle for a given pitch change as shown on the attitude indicator.
To practice precision control of pitch in an airplane without an attitude indicator, make small pitch changes by visual reference to the natural horizon and note the rate of movement of the altimeter. Note what amount of pitch change gives the slowest steady rate of change on the altimeter. Then practice small pitch corrections by accurately interpreting and controlling the rate of needle movement.
An instructor pilot can demonstrate an excessive nose-down deviation (indicated by rapid movement of the altimeter needle) and then, as an example, show the result of improper corrective technique. The normal impulse is to make a large pitch correction in a hurry, but this inevitably leads to overcontrolling. The needle slows down, then reverses direction, and finally indicates an excessive nose-high deviation. The result is tension on the controls, erratic control response, and increasingly extreme control movements. The correct technique, which is slower and smoother, returns the airplane to the desired attitude more quickly, with positive control and no confusion.
When a pitch error is detected, corrective action should be taken promptly, but with light control pressures and two distinct changes of attitude: (1) a change of attitude to stop the needle movement and (2) a change of attitude to return to the desired altitude.
When the altimeter indicates an altitude deviation, apply just enough elevator pressure to decrease the rate of needle movement. If it slows down abruptly, ease off some of the pressure until the needle continues to move, but ease off slowly. Slow needle movement means the airplane attitude is close to level flight. Add slightly more corrective pressure to stop the direction of needle movement. At this point, level flight is achieved; a reversal of needle movement means the aircraft has passed through it. Relax control pressures carefully, continuing to cross-check since changing airspeed causes changes in the effectiveness of a given control pressure. Next, adjust the pitch attitude with elevator pressure for the rate of change of altimeter needle movement that is correlated with normal pitch corrections and return to the desired altitude.
As a rule of thumb, for errors of less than 100 feet, use a half bar width correction. [Figures 7-9 and 7-10] For errors in excess of 100 feet, use an initial full bar width correction. [Figures 7-11 and 7-12] Practice predetermined altitude changes using the altimeter alone, then in combination with the attitude indicator.