In many cases, the landing distance of an aircraft defines the runway requirements for flight operations. The minimum landing distance is obtained by landing at some minimum safe speed, that allows sufficient margin above stall and provides satisfactory control and capability for a go-around. Generally, the landing speed is some fixed percentage of the stall speed or minimum control speed for the aircraft in the landing configuration. As such, the landing is accomplished at some particular value of lift coefficient and AOA. The exact values depend on the aircraft characteristics but, once defined, the values are independent of weight, altitude, and wind.
To obtain minimum landing distance at the specified landing speed, the forces that act on the aircraft must provide maximum deceleration during the landing roll. The forces acting on the aircraft during the landing roll may require various procedures to maintain landing deceleration at the peak value.
A distinction should be made between the procedures for minimum landing distance and an ordinary landing roll with considerable excess runway available. Minimum landing distance is obtained by creating a continuous peak deceleration of the aircraft; that is, extensive use of the brakes for maximum deceleration. On the other hand, an ordinary landing roll with considerable excess runway may allow extensive use of aerodynamic drag to minimize wear and tear on the tires and brakes. If aerodynamic drag is sufficient to cause deceleration, it can be used in deference to the brakes in the early stages of the landing roll (i.e., brakes and tires suffer from continuous hard use, but aircraft aerodynamic drag is free and does not wear out with use). The use of aerodynamic drag is applicable only for deceleration to 60 or 70 percent of the touchdown speed. At speeds less than 60 to 70 percent of the touchdown speed, aerodynamic drag is so slight as to be of little use, and braking must be utilized to produce continued deceleration. Since the objective during the landing roll is to decelerate, the powerplant thrust should be the smallest possible positive value (or largest possible negative value in the case of thrust reversers).
In addition to the important factors of proper procedures, many other variables affect the landing performance. Any item that alters the landing speed or deceleration rate during the landing roll affects the landing distance.
The effect of gross weight on landing distance is one of the principal items determining the landing distance. One effect of an increased gross weight is that a greater speed is required to support the aircraft at the landing AOA and lift coefficient. For an example of the effect of a change in gross weight, a 21 percent increase in landing weight requires a ten percent increase in landing speed to support the greater weight.
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When minimum landing distances are considered, braking friction forces predominate during the landing roll and, for the majority of aircraft configurations, braking friction is the main source of deceleration.
The minimum landing distance varies in direct proportion to the gross weight. For example, a ten percent increase in gross weight at landing would cause a:
- Five percent increase in landing velocity
- Ten percent increase in landing distance
A contingency of this is the relationship between weight and braking friction force.
The effect of wind on landing distance is large and deserves proper consideration when predicting landing distance. Since the aircraft lands at a particular airspeed independent of the wind, the principal effect of wind on landing distance is the change in the groundspeed at which the aircraft touches down. The effect of wind on deceleration during the landing is identical to the effect on acceleration during the takeoff.
The effect of pressure altitude and ambient temperature is to define density altitude and its effect on landing performance. An increase in density altitude increases the landing speed but does not alter the net retarding force. Thus, the aircraft at altitude lands at the same IAS as at sea level but, because of the reduced density, the TAS is greater. Since the aircraft lands at altitude with the same weight and dynamic pressure, the drag and braking friction throughout the landing roll have the same values as at sea level. As long as the condition is within the capability of the brakes, the net retarding force is unchanged, and the deceleration is the same as with the landing at sea level. Since an increase in altitude does not alter deceleration, the effect of density altitude on landing distance is due to the greater TAS.
The minimum landing distance at 5,000 feet is 16 percent greater than the minimum landing distance at sea level. The approximate increase in landing distance with altitude is approximately three and one-half percent for each 1,000 feet of altitude. Proper accounting of density altitude is necessary to accurately predict landing distance.
The effect of proper landing speed is important when runway lengths and landing distances are critical. The landing speeds specified in the AFM/POH are generally the minimum safe speeds at which the aircraft can be landed. Any attempt to land at below the specified speed may mean that the aircraft may stall, be difficult to control, or develop high rates of descent. On the other hand, an excessive speed at landing may improve the controllability slightly (especially in crosswinds) but causes an undesirable increase in landing distance.
A ten percent excess landing speed causes at least a 21 percent increase in landing distance. The excess speed places a greater working load on the brakes because of the additional kinetic energy to be dissipated. Also, the additional speed causes increased drag and lift in the normal ground attitude, and the increased lift reduces the normal force on the braking surfaces. The deceleration during this range of speed immediately after touchdown may suffer, and it is more probable for a tire to be blown out from braking at this point.
The most critical conditions of landing performance are combinations of high gross weight, high density altitude, and unfavorable wind. These conditions produce the greatest required landing distances and critical levels of energy dissipation on the brakes. In all cases, it is necessary to make an accurate prediction of minimum landing distance to compare with the available runway. A polished, professional landing procedure is necessary because the landing phase of flight accounts for more pilot-caused aircraft accidents than any other single phase of flight.
In the prediction of minimum landing distance from the AFM/POH data, the following considerations must be given:
- Pressure altitude and temperature—to define the effect of density altitude
- Gross weight—which defines the CAS for landing
- Wind—a large effect due to wind or wind component along the runway
- Runway slope and condition—relatively small correction for ordinary values of runway slope, but a significant effect of snow, ice, or soft ground
A tail wind of ten knots increases the landing distance by about 21 percent. An increase of landing speed by ten percent increases the landing distance by 20 percent. Hydroplaning makes braking ineffective until a decrease of speed that can be determined by using Figure 11-18.
For instance, a pilot is downwind for runway 18, and the tower asks if runway 27 could be accepted. There is a light rain and the winds are out of the east at ten knots. The pilot accepts because he or she is approaching the extended centerline of runway 27. The turn is tight and the pilot must descend (dive) to get to runway 27. After becoming aligned with the runway and at 50 feet AGL, the pilot is already 1,000 feet down the 3,500 feet runway. The airspeed is still high by about ten percent (should be at 70 knots and is at about 80 knots). The wind of ten knots is blowing from behind.
First, the airspeed being high by about ten percent (80 knots versus 70 knots), as presented in the performance chapter, results in a 20 percent increase in the landing distance. In performance planning, the pilot determined that at 70 knots the distance would be 1,600 feet. However, now it is increased by 20 percent and the required distance is now 1,920 feet.
The newly revised landing distance of 1,920 feet is also affected by the wind. In looking at Figure 11-19, the affect of the wind is an additional 20 percent for every ten miles per hour (mph) in wind. This is computed not on the original estimate but on the estimate based upon the increased airspeed. Now the landing distance is increased by another 320 feet for a total requirement of 2,240 feet to land the airplane after reaching 50 feet AGL.
That is the original estimate of 1,600 under planned conditions plus the additional 640 feet for excess speed and the tailwind. Given the pilot overshot the threshhold by 1,000 feet, the total length required is 3,240 on a 3,500 foot runway; 260 feet to spare. But this is in a perfect environment. Most pilots become fearful as the end of the runway is facing them just ahead. A typical pilot reaction is to brake—and brake hard. Because the aircraft does not have antilock braking features like a car, the brakes lock, and the aircraft hydroplanes on the wet surface of the runway until decreasing to a speed of about 54 knots (the square root of the tire pressure (√36) × 9). Braking is ineffective when hydroplaning.
The 260 feet that a pilot might feel is left over has long since evaporated as the aircraft hydroplaned the first 300–500 feet when the brakes locked. This is an example of a true story, but one which only changes from year to year because of new participants and aircraft with different N-numbers.
In this example, the pilot actually made many bad decisions. Bad decisions, when combined, have a synergy greater than the individual errors. Therefore, the corrective actions become larger and larger until correction is almost impossible. Aeronautical decision-making is discussed more fully in the Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM) category.