A traffic data system is designed to help you visually acquire and remain aware of nearby aircraft that pose potential collision threats. All traffic data systems provide aural alerts when the aircraft comes within a certain distance of any other detected aircraft. Traffic data systems coupled with MFDs can provide visual representations of surrounding traffic. Most traffic data systems allow you to set the sensitivity of the system and display only traffic that exists within a specific distance from the aircraft.
There are two basic types of traffic data systems available today: one using onboard sensors to detect nearby aircraft, the other relying on traffic information transmitted from ground facilities to the cockpit.
Traffic Data Systems Using Onboard Sensing Equipment
Traffic collision avoidance systems (TCAS) and traffic advisory (TA) systems use onboard sensing equipment to locate nearby aircraft and provide alerts and advisories. Both TCAS and TA systems work by querying the transponders of nearby aircraft to determine their distance, bearing, altitude, and movement relative to your aircraft. In addition, TCAS and TA systems use Mode C information from transponders to determine altitude and vertical movement of surrounding aircraft. Using these capabilities, TCAS and TA systems provide traffic alerts and advisories.
TCAS I and TA systems can issue a TA whenever another active transponder-equipped aircraft comes within an approximately 40-second range of the aircraft. Traffic advisories take the form of an aural alert: “Traffic! Traffic!”
Advanced TCAS systems (TCAS II) can also issue a resolution advisory (RA) when another active transponderequipped aircraft comes within an approximately 25-second range of the aircraft. RAs take the form of an avoidance command that instructs you how to fly the aircraft in order to avoid the threat. An aural alert is issued that instructs the pilot to perform a vertical avoidance maneuver. Example aural alerts are: “Climb! Climb!” and “Descend! Descend!”
TCAS and traffic advisory systems use similar symbology to present traffic information. Figure 5-19 shows four common traffic symbols used on traffic displays. The resolution advisory symbols appear only when an advanced TCAS II system is used. The colors used to display traffic symbols vary with the capabilities of the display.
Despite their many advantages, TCAS and traffic advisory systems have several important limitations. For example, TCAS and traffic advisory systems cannot detect aircraft that do not have active transponders. Another limitation of TCAS and traffic advisory systems is that they give unwanted alerts when the pilot is purposefully operating in the vicinity of other aircraft. For example, two aircraft making approaches to parallel runways will probably receive traffic alerts. These alerts can be distracting.
Traffic Data Systems Receiving Information From Ground-based Facilities
The traffic information service (TIS) is a second type of traffic data system. Unlike TCAS, the TIS system does not require each aircraft to have an onboard sensor that locates nearby aircraft. However, each aircraft must have operational and active transponders to be indicated on the ATC system. Rather, TIS captures traffic information that appears on radar scopes at nearby air traffic control facilities and broadcasts that information to appropriately equipped aircraft. In order to use TIS, aircraft must be equipped with a transponder capable of receiving TIS broadcasts. When TIS is operational, TIS-capable aircraft can observe traffic information in the cockpit and receive traffic advisories for proximate aircraft.
There is an important limitation of TIS. TIS data is only transmitted from approach radar facilities. No information is broadcast from en route (air route traffic control center (ARTCC)) facilities, so the effective coverage of TIS is limited to larger metropolitan areas. Some approach radar facilities are not equipped to send TIS information. Note that the aircraft must be within range (approximately 50 NM) and within line of site of the TIS station to receive broadcasts.
Advanced Traffic Data Systems Based on ADS-B
Future traffic avoidance systems will probably be able to determine position and digitally exchange information with airborne and ground-based facilities. Using the automatic dependent surveillance—broadcast (ADS-B) system, participating aircraft will continuously broadcast their own position, altitude, airspeed, trajectory, and identification to air traffic control facilities. ADS-B aircraft continuously receive the same information from like equipped aircraft in the area (line of sight), which allows onboard displays for surrounding traffic. ADS-B has been used with much success in Alaskan trials and requires less infrastructure to be usable. ADS-B equipment is demonstrating promise for better traffic separation on transoceanic routes well out of range of land-based systems. ADS-B signals are transmitted on the 978 MHz channel. The information gathered from all participating aircraft can then be transmitted back to each TIS aircraft to provide a detailed picture of the traffic situation, even if those aircraft do not have ADS-B onboard.
Using a Traffic Data System
Setting Sensitivity on a Traffic Data System
Most traffic data systems allow you to adjust sensitivity and configure the system to track targets occurring only within a specified distance and altitude. More sophisticated traffic data systems automatically adjust sensitivity throughout different phases of flight. It is important to become familiar with the use of these controls and features.
Responding to Traffic Alerts
You must develop skill in the task of visually acquiring aircraft identified by an advanced avionics traffic data system. This task requires you to use angles and distances displayed on a traffic display to help guide your visual search out the window. Since both the directions and altitudes of intruding aircraft provided to the aircraft’s traffic data receiver are subject to error, you must widen your scan to all areas around the location presented on the traffic display.
When responding to air traffic control requests to acquire and maintain visual separation from nearby targets, be careful not to acknowledge contact with targets that have been observed only on a traffic display. Do not report having the traffic “in sight” before visual acquisition of a target.
Error: Overreliance on Traffic Data System/Failure To Scan
Keep in mind that a traffic data system is designed to enhance “see and avoid” capabilities. You must avoid any tendency to rely too much on traffic data systems, or to use traffic data systems as a substitute for visual scanning and acquisition of surrounding traffic. Because of the limitations of advanced traffic data systems, think of them as supplemental to your traffic awareness while you continue to assume primary responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft. Remember, too, that systems can and do fail. Traffic data systems are quite complex and any failure from the other aircraft’s transponder/GPS/encoder to your receiver/decoder/GPS/ traffic computer and display encoder will reduce data on your display. Power spikes, weather (lightning), and other onboard aircraft disturbances are all unknown and changing. As experience is gained with the system, better designs will eliminate problems yet to be discovered.
Using a Traffic Data System on the Ground
Most traffic data systems automatically switch to a standby mode when the aircraft is on the ground or operating below a minimum speed. The same systems typically allow you to override this feature and manually activate the traffic data system at any time. There are a number of ways to exploit this capability. When departing from an uncontrolled airport, the traffic data system can help you learn of other traffic in the vicinity of the airport. When operating in low-visibility conditions, the same feature can help inform of other aircraft operating on the airport surface. One potential future application of ADS-B is allowing controllers and pilots to monitor aircraft better on taxiways and runways. You must check equipment documentation to determine when the transponder actually transmits, where the selection controls are located, and how to use those controls.