Due to their design and structure, tailwheel airplanes (tailwheels) exhibit operational and handling characteristics different from those of tricycle-gear airplanes (nosewheels). [Figure 13-1] In general, tailwheels are less forgiving of pilot error while in contact with the ground than are nosewheels. This chapter focuses on the operational differences that occur during ground operations, takeoffs, and landings.
Although still termed “conventional-gear airplanes,” tailwheel designs are most likely to be encountered today by pilots who have first learned in nosewheels. Therefore, tailwheel operations are approached as they appear to a pilot making a transition from nosewheel designs.
The main landing gear forms the principal support of the airplane on the ground. The tailwheel also supports the airplane, but steering and directional control are its primary functions. With the tailwheel-type airplane, the two main struts are attached to the airplane slightly ahead of the airplane’s center of gravity (CG), so that the plane naturally rests in a nose-high attitude on the triangle created by the main gear and the tailwheel. This arrangement is responsible for the three major handling differences between nosewheel and tailwheel airplanes. They center on directional instability, angle of attack (AOA), and crosswind weathervaning tendencies.
Proper usage of the rudder pedals is crucial for directional control while taxiing. Steering with the pedals may be accomplished through the forces of airflow or propeller slipstream acting on the rudder surface or through a mechanical linkage acting through springs to communicate steering inputs to the tailwheel. Initially, the pilot should taxi with the heels of the feet resting on the floor and the balls of the feet on the bottom of the rudder pedals. The feet should be slid up onto the brake pedals only when it is necessary to depress the brakes. This permits the simultaneous application of rudder and brake whenever needed. Some models of tailwheel airplanes are equipped with heel brakes rather than toe brakes. As in nosewheel airplanes, brakes are used to slow and stop the aircraft and to increase turning authority when tailwheel steering inputs prove insufficient. Whenever used, brakes should be applied smoothly and evenly.
Because of the relative placement of the main gear and the CG, tailwheel aircraft are inherently unstable on the ground. As taxi turns are started, the aircraft begins to pivot on one or the other of the main wheels. From that point, with the CG aft of that pivot point, the forward momentum of the plane acts to continue and even tighten the turn without further steering inputs. In consequence, removal of rudder pressure does not stop a turn that has been started, and it is necessary to apply an opposite input (opposite rudder) to bring the aircraft back to straight-line travel.
If the initial rudder input is maintained after a turn has been started, the turn continues to tighten, an unexpected result for pilots accustomed to a nosewheel. In consequence, it is common for pilots making the transition between the two types to experience difficulty in early taxi attempts. As long as taxi speeds are kept low, however, no serious problems result, and pilots typically adjust quickly to the technique of using rudder pressure to start a turn, then neutralizing the pedals as the turn continues, and finally using an opposite pedal input to stop the turn and regain straight line travel.
Because of this inbuilt instability, the most important lesson that can be taught in tailwheel airplanes is to taxi and make turns at slow speeds.
Angle of Attack
A second strong contrast to nosewheel airplanes, tailwheel aircraft make lift while on the ground any time there is a relative headwind. The amount of lift obviously depends on the wind speed, but even at slow taxi speeds, the wings and ailerons are doing their best to aid in liftoff. This phenomenon requires care and management, especially during the takeoff and landing rolls, and is again unexpected by nosewheel pilots making the transition.
On most tailwheel-type airplanes, directional control while taxiing is facilitated by the use of a steerable tailwheel, which operates along with the rudder. The tailwheel steering mechanism remains engaged when the tailwheel is operated through an arc of about 30° each side of center. Beyond that limit, the tailwheel breaks free and becomes full swiveling. In full swivel mode, the airplane can be pivoted within its own length, if desired. While taxiing, the steerable tailwheel should be used for making normal turns and the pilot’s feet kept off the brake pedals to avoid unnecessary wear on the brakes.
When beginning to taxi, the brakes should be tested immediately for proper operation. This is done by first applying power to start the airplane moving slowly forward, then retarding the throttle and simultaneously applying pressure smoothly to both brakes. If braking action is unsatisfactory, the engine should be shut down immediately.
To turn the airplane on the ground, the pilot should apply rudder in the desired direction of turn and use whatever power or brake necessary to control the taxi speed. At very low taxi speeds, directional response is sluggish as surface friction acting on the tailwheel inhibits inputs trough the steering springs. At normal taxi speeds, rudder inputs alone should be sufficient to start and stop most turns. During taxi, the AOA built in to the structure gives control placement added importance when compared to nosewheel models.
When taxiing in a quartering headwind, the upwind wing can easily be lifted by gusting or strong winds unless ailerons are positioned to “kill” lift on that side (stick held into the wind). At the same time, elevator should be held full back to add downward pressure to the tailwheel assembly and improve tailwheel steering response. This is standard control positioning for both nosewheel and tailwheel airplanes, so the difference lies only in the added tailwheel vulnerability created by the fuselage pitch attitude.
When taxiing with a quartering tailwind, this fuselage angle reduces the tendency of the wind to lift either wing. Nevertheless, the basic vulnerability to surface winds common to all tailwheel airplanes makes it essential to be aware of wind direction at all times, so holding the stick away from the cross wind is good practice (left aileron in a right quartering tailwind).
Elevator positioning in tailwinds is a bit more complex. Standard teaching tends to recommend full forward stick in any degree of tailwind, arguing that a tailwind striking the elevator when it is deflected full down increases downward pressure on the tailwheel assembly and increases directional control. Equally important, if the elevator were to remain deflected up, a strong tailwind can get under the control surface and lift the tail with unfortunate consequences for the propeller and engine.
While stick-forward positioning is essential in strong tailwinds, it is not likely to be an appropriate response when winds are light. The propeller wash in even lightly-powered airplanes is usually strong enough to overcome the effects of light tailwinds, producing a net headwind over the tail. This in turn suggests that back stick, not forward, does the most to help with directional control. If in doubt, it is best to sample the wind as you taxi and position the elevator where it will do the most good.